Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

Subscriptions: see Brill.com


(549 words)

Author(s): Erlich, Haggai
The term Jabarti (Ar. Jabartī) refers traditionally to all Muslim people living in the Horn of Africa, members of diverse communities, of different ethnic origins, and speakers of many local languages. There are several etymologies of the term: Ar. jabbār (strong; strong warrior), Geʾez agbert (servant of God), Tigrinya gabari (servant, tenant), the name of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Jabartī, legendary father of the Darod Somali clan, or the Arabic word jabart (burning land), which was used to describe the territory of present-day southern Ethiopia and the home of mediaev…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jābir b. Ḥayyān

(3,396 words)

Author(s): Forster, Regula
Jābir b. Ḥayyān (b. first half of the second/eighth century, d. c.200/815?) is the alleged author of a vast corpus of mainly alchemical writings. Scholars, however, dispute his very existence and his authorship of that corpus. 1. Biography The earliest biography (with extensive bibliography) is in Ibn al-Nadīm’s Fihrist (c.380/990, ed. Flügel, 354–8, ed. Sayyid, 2/1:450–8, trans. Fück, 95–104). From this and other biographic accounts—e.g., Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, 61, trans. Blachère, 111; Ibn al-Qifṭī, 160–1; Ibn Khallikān, 1:291 n. 128 (on Jaʿfar…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jābir b. Zayd

(899 words)

Author(s): Francesca, Ersilia
Abū l-Shaʿthāʾ Jābir b. Zayd al-Azdī al-ʿUmānī al-Yaḥmidī al-Jawfī al-Baṣrī was a prominent jurist and traditionist and the founding father of the Ibāḍī movement in Basra. He was born in 18/639 or 21/642 in Nizwā (or Firq, near Nizwā) in Oman. He assumed the leadership of the Ibāḍī community of Basra upon the death of ʿAbdallāh b. Ibāḍ (d. 89/708), the eponym of the movement. Like the latter, Jābir b. Zayd maintained good relations with the Umayyad rulers, but, towards the end of the first/seventh century, he was exiled,…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jābirī, Muḥammad ʿĀbid

(2,222 words)

Author(s): von Kügelgen, Anke
Muḥammad ʿĀbid al-Jābirī (1935–2010) was one of the most influential Arab philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century, his major work comprising the four volumes of Naqd al-ʿaql al-ʿArabī (“The critique of Arab reason”). Al-Jābirī played a significant role in shaping the 1980s and 1990s debate on aṣāla (authenticity), muʿāṣara (contemporaneity), and ḥadātha (modernity) by demanding an “epistemological break” ( qaṭīʿa ībistīmūlūjiyya) with unscientific thought systems and pleading for rationality, realism, and the separation of religion and science. His own pref…
Date: 2020-03-18

al-Jābirī, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ

(740 words)

Author(s): Idrissi Alami, Ahmed
Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ al-Jābirī (1940–2009), one of Tunisia’s most prominent writers and critics in the post-independence era, was born in Tozeur, Tunisia, where he received his early education. As a teenager, he moved to Tunis, where he obtained his high school diploma before leaving for Iraq to pursue higher studies. After receiving his bachelor’s degree in Arabic literature from the University of Baghdad in 1971, he returned to Tunisia and taught at the high school level before joining the Ministry of…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jabrā, Jabrā Ibrāhīm

(1,190 words)

Author(s): Boullata, Issa J.
Jabrā Ibrāhīm Jabrā (1920–94) was a Palestinian novelist, short-story writer, literary and art critic, free-verse poet, essayist, prolific translator, and amateur painter. Born in 1920 in Bethlehem to a family whose original name was Chelico (as spelled by the family) and who belonged to the Syriac Orthodox Church, he went to school and church in Bethlehem until the age of twelve. He then moved with his family to Jerusalem, where he continued his education and graduated in 1937 from the Arab Colle…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jacob bar Shakkō

(709 words)

Author(s): Takahashi, Hidemi
Jacob bar Shakkō (d. 638–9/1240–1), known also as Severus, was a Syrian Orthodox Christian monk and scholar. Born in the village of Barṭelli, east of Mosul, he entered the nearby monastery of Mār Mattay, and later became its abbot and bishop. The way in which his name is recorded in the sources suggests that Jacob was his episcopal name, while the more episcopal-sounding Severus was the name by which he was known before becoming bishop. Barhebraeus (d. 685/1286, Chronicon ecclesiasticum, Louvain 1872–7, 2:409–11) tells us that Bar Shakkō studied “grammar and the first book…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jacob of Edessa

(547 words)

Author(s): Penn, Michael Philip
Jacob of Edessa (d. 89/708) was a renowned polymath Syriac scholar and the Miaphysite (i.e., Syriac Orthodox or monophysite) bishop of Edessa. His extant writings include many of the most important Christian observations concerning the first century of Islam. According to later mediaeval historians, Jacob was born in about 11/632 in the province of Antioch. Ordained as bishop of Edessa (present-day Urfa, Turkey) in about 64/684, Jacob gained a reputation for strict adherence to church regulations.…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jaʿd b. Dirham

(619 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Jaʿd b. Dirham was an Umayyad-era heretic who was executed by Khālid al-Qasrī sometime during the latter’s reign as governor of Iraq (105–120/724–738), either in Kufa or in the provincial capital Wāsiṭ. Details about his activities, origins, and beliefs are both limited and tainted by later exaggerations and revisions. None of his writings or doctrinal statements survive. Jaʿd reportedly lived for a time in Damascus, but originated in either Khurāsān or Ḥarrān, in the Jazīra. He eventually fled fr…
Date: 2020-02-11


(1,516 words)

Author(s): Lazzerini, Edward J.
Jadidism (from Ar. uṣūl jadīda, new sources) was a late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century project to transform Turco-Islamic cultures within or indirectly influenced by the Russian Empire. Jadidism emerged between the 1840s and 1870s amongst Muslim intellectuals as a fragmented but spirited call for educational reform and wider dissemination of practical knowledge through the modern press. It became, by the early twentieth century, an all-encompassing social movement committed to modernity that…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jaʿfar b. Abī Yaḥyā

(1,548 words)

Author(s): Thiele, Jan
Shams al-Dīn Abū l-Faḍl Jaʿfar b. Abī Yaḥyā Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Salām al-Buhlūlī (d. 573/1177–8) was a Yemeni Zaydī Shīʿī theologian and judge, hence his common name al-Qāḍī Jaʿfar. His life and intellectual career reflect the country’s complex sectarian landscape and are linked to developments that occurred first during the sixth/twelfth century. He occupies a central role in the Zaydī narrative of an important endeavour of cultural exchange between the members of the community based in the northern highlands of Yemen and their co-religionists in the Caspian region of northern Iran. In …
Date: 2020-02-11


(4,204 words)

Author(s): Balabanlilar, Lisa
Salīm Muḥammad Nūr al-Dīn Jahāngīr (b. 17 Rabīʿ I 977/30 August 1569, d. 27 Ṣafar 1037/29 October 1627), posthumously known, according to the Mughal dynastic tradition, as Janāt Makānī (whose place is in heaven), was the fourth emperor in the Tīmūrid-Mughal line, established in India in 932/1526 by the Tīmūrid-Chaghatay prince Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad Bābur (r. 932–7/1526–30). Although Jahāngīr’s reign began and ended in princely rebellion, the period of his rule was one of relative peace and stability. Unlike the reign of hi…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jahān Sūz

(864 words)

Author(s): O'Neal, Michael
Abū ʿAlī ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusayn Ikhtiyār Amīr al-Muʾminīn (r. 544–56/1149–61), known to posterity as Jahān Sūz (lit., world-burner) for his vengeful sacking of the city of Ghazna, in present-day Afghanistan, is the Ghūrid ruler who first made the dynasty a major regional power. He was one of the seven sons of the chieftain ʿIzz al-Dīn Ḥusayn (r. c.493–540/1100–46) and, upon his father’s death, governed Wujīristān, the district west of Ghazna, as an appanage under his brother Sayf al-Dīn Sūrī (r. c.540–4/1146–9). …
Date: 2020-02-11

Jāhīn, Ṣalāḥ

(1,040 words)

Author(s): DeYoung, Terri
Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥilmī Jāhīn (1930–86), an Egyptian intellectual, made important contributions to Egyptian colloquial poetry, the art of the cartoon, theatre, television, and cinema. He was also an influential editor for two of the most widely circulated Egyptian cultural journals of the second half of the twentieth century, Rūz al-yūsuf and Ṣabāḥ al-khayr. Jāhīn was born on 25 December 1930 in the Shubrā quarter of Cairo. When he was four years old, his father was appointed as a prosecuting attorney for the Egyptian government. During Jāhīn’s…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jainism and Jains

(3,669 words)

Author(s): Vose, Steven M.
Jainism is a religion that originated in eastern India. Its most recent founder, Mahāvīra (lit., great hero, traditionally dated 599–27 or 582–10 B.C.E. but dated c.497–25 B.C.E. by scholars), was an elder contemporary of the Buddha. Mahāvīra is regarded as the last of twenty-four figures in our age known as tīrthāṅkaras (lit., ford makers, that is, those who show the way to liberation from the predicament of death and rebirth, which is thought of as crossing over a vast ocean) or jinas (victors) (unless otherwise indicated, all Indo-Aryan words in this entry are in Sanskrit…
Date: 2020-02-11


(2,376 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika
Jaipur (Hindi Jayapura) is the capital of the state of Rajasthan in northwestern India (latitude N 26°55′, longitude E 75°49′) and has a population of more than three million six hundred thousand (estimate for 2018). 1. Early history Its walled city, on which this article focuses, was built by King Sawāī Jayasiṃha (Jaisingh, r. 1112–56/1700–43) as the new residence of the Rājpūt Kachhavāhā dynasty. The former residence, Āmer (also Āmber), now part of Jaipur, retained its ritual function for the dynasty (Horstmann, Jaipur 1778). With construction work under way, the city’s offi…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jakarta Charter

(529 words)

Author(s): Feener, R. Michael
The Jakarta Charter (Indon., Piagam Jakarta) is the common name for a text that emerged from debates over the formulation of Sukarno’s Pancasila (five pillars) ideology in 1945, in which the fifth of its pillars (in Sukarno’s original iteration), asserting Belief in God (Ke-Tuhan-an), was further qualified with the addition of a controversial clause that stipulated that Muslims in the new nation would be obliged to observe Islamic law (dengan kewadjiban mendjalankan sjariʿat Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknja). This formulation (which came to be know as the Seven Words) cam…
Date: 2020-02-11


(2,787 words)

Author(s): Sanneh, Lamin
The Jakhanke, a specialised community of religious professionals or clerics with their roots in the Mali Empire (c. 627–1009/1230–1600), have devoted themselves to the tradition of peaceful propagation of Islam in society. Plying the paths of trade and pilgrimage to promote a tradition of peaceful Islam in remote hinterlands, the Jakhanke guided the course of Islam in the provinces of the Mali Empire and beyond. Established in self-contained religious communities, called by Sylvain Golberry, a tw…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥsan

(982 words)

Author(s): Tschacher, Torsten
Sayyid Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥsan Kaythalī (r. 734–9/1334–9), sometimes erroneously called Sayyid Ḥasan (e.g., Yaḥyā, 106), was the founder of the short-lived sultanate of Maʿbar in South India and father-in-law of the Moroccan traveller Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (d. 770/1368–9 or 779/1377), who had married Jalāl al-Dīn’s daughter Ḥūrnasab (Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 3:337). He was born into an important family claiming descent from the Prophet, the Sayyids of Kaithal, a town northwest of Delhi (Jackson, 191–2; Yaḥyā, 106). A Sanskrit inscription dating to 1328 (728 A.H., although no hijrī equivalence is mentione…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jalāl al-Dīn Mangburnī

(2,443 words)

Author(s): Paul, Jürgen
Jalāl al-Dīn Mangburnī, the “last Khwārazmshāh,” ruled in parts of Iran and northwestern India from 617/1220 to 628/1231. He is best known as a heroic fighter against the Mongol invasion. He succeeded in restoring Khwārazmī rule in western Iran and Azerbaijan but was finally defeated by the Mongols in 628/1231. His name is read and explained in various ways. Earlier scholars had Mangubirti (or similar forms); the forms most frequently used now are Mangburnī (with a birthmark on the nose) (Mīnuvī) or Mingīrinī (valiant fighter worth one thousand men, equivalent of Persian hazārmard) (Ja…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jalāl al-Dīn Yazdī

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Ghereghlou, Kioumars
Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh Yazdī (d. 1028/1618) was a Persian astrologer and chronicler whose chronicle, titled Rūznāma-yi Mullā Jalāl but also known as Tārīkh-i ʿAbbāsī, deals with Ṣafavid history from 984/1576 to 1020/1611. Yazdī’s date of birth is unknown. His family hailed from Yazd, but he spent most of his adult life elsewhere. Yazdī started his career as an astrologer in Lāhījān at the court of the last Kārkīā ruler of Gīlān-i Biyah-Pīsh, Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Khān Gīlānī (d. 1009/1600), himself a renowned expert in astrology (nujūm) and astronomy (hayʾa). During his year…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jālib, Ḥabīb

(889 words)

Author(s): Khan, Imran
Habīb Jālib (1928–93) was an Urdu poet best known for his opposition to military dictatorships and corrupt politics in Pakistan. He has been hailed as a revolutionary poet and a poet of the masses. Jālib was born in Hoshiarpur, British India. He became interested in social issues at an early age, when he began to notice the disparity between social classes in his village. After finishing seventh grade he went to live with his brother in Delhi, where he began to compose poetry. During school holid…
Date: 2020-02-11


(836 words)

Author(s): Krais, Jakob
The jamāhīriyya was a unique political system in force in Libya from 1977 to 2011 under the rule of Colonel Muʿammar al-Qadhdhāfī (1942–2011). The state’s official name during this period was Great Socialist Libyan Arab People’s Jamāhīriyya (al-jamāhīriyya al-ʿarabiyya al-lībiyya al-shaʿbiyya al-ishtirākiyya al-ʿuẓmā). The neologism al-jamāhīriyya (from al-jamāhīr, the masses) pertained to its alleged character as a self-administrating stateless society, that is, a total and direct democracy without any bureaucratic institutions. Influenced …
Date: 2020-02-11

Jamāl al-Dīn Iṣfahānī

(974 words)

Author(s): Feuillebois, Ève
Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Iṣfahānī was a poet and painter of the second half of the sixth/twelfth century. Almost all we know about him comes from his Dīvān (collection of poems), but some information can be found also in the Rāḥat al-ṣudūr wa-āyat al-surūr dar tārikh-i Āl-i Saljūq (“Dynastic history of the Great Saljūqs,” written between 599/1202–3 and 603/1206–7) by Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Rāvandī (fl. 575–96/1180–1200), a Persian historian, and in the Dīvān of Jamāl al-Dīn’s son, Kamāl al-Dīn Ismāʿīl Iṣfahānī (d. c.635/1238). Jamāl al-Dīn’s date of birth is unknown. Rāvand…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jamālzada, Muḥammad ʿAlī

(1,925 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Claus Valling
Muḥammad ʿAlī Jamālzada (1892–1997) was a leading Iranian writer and intellectual, who spent most of his life outside Iran. He introduced the European short story (die Novelle) to the Iranian reading public through his groundbreaking short-story collection Yikī būd-u yikī nabūd (“Once upon a time”), and he initiated the modernist and realist literary trend in Iranian literary history. 1. Life Muḥammad ʿAlī Jamālzada was born in Isfahan, the oldest child of the famous preacher and revolutionary, Sayyid Jamāl al-Dīn Vāʿiẓ Isfahānī (d. 1908), who was one of…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jamiat Kheir

(578 words)

Author(s): Mobini, Natalie
Jamiat Kheir (from Ar. jamʿiyyat khayr, benevolent society) was the first modern organisation established by members of the Ḥaḍramī Arab community in Indonesia. Formed in Jakarta in 1901, it was a pioneer of al-nahḍa al-Ḥaḍramiyya (Ar., the Ḥaḍramī awakening), which sought to bring progress and education to the Ḥaḍramī community. Jamiat Kheir was a modern-style organisation with a formal structure, a governing executive elected at annual general meetings, and registered members. It was recognised as a legal body by the Dutch colonial government…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Janbīhī, Muḥammad

(789 words)

Author(s): Chih, Rachida
Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Nabī al-Janbīhī (1842–1927), known as al-Miskīn (the poor), was an Egyptian religious scholar, preacher, and Ṣūfī. He attended the Qurʾānic school in his native village of Janbiyya, in the Buḥayra Governorate in the Nile Delta, and then studied at al-Azhar University, where he obtained the ʿālamiyya (the highest degree awarded by the university before its reconstitution by the government in 1963). He settled in Cairo, where he worked as a preacher in al-Muṭahhar mosque. Although al-Janbīhī took part, through his writings a…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jān-i Jānān, Maẓhar

(960 words)

Author(s): Weismann, Itzchak
Maẓhar Jān-i Jānān (1111–95/1699–1781), a leading Naqshbandī-Mujaddidī Ṣūfī shaykh in Mughal Delhi, was born into a noble family of Afghan extraction that served in the Mughal administration. He received military as well as religious education, especially in ḥadīth studies, but decided at the age of eighteen to give up that official vocation in favour of the Ṣūfī quest. Moving to Delhi, he followed the path under a succession of masters of the Muajaddidī offshoot of the Naqshbandiyya (whose eponymous founder, Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naqshband…
Date: 2020-02-11


(1,310 words)

Author(s): Ágoston, Gábor
The janissaries (from Turkish yeniçeri, yeñīçerī, or new troops) were the elite standing infantry troops of the Ottoman sultans. Established either under Orhan (Orkhān, r. c. 724–63/1324–62) or Murad (Murād I, r. 763–91/1362–89) as the sultan’s bodyguard and comprising only a few hundred men, they soon evolved into the dynasty’s elite infantry to counterbalance the Turcoman marcher lords’ tribal levies. Paid in cash four times a year, the janissaries were part of the sultan’s salaried household slave troops (kapıkulu, qāpīqūlu). As one of the first standing armies in Europ…
Date: 2020-02-11


(1,094 words)

Author(s): McLeod, John
Janjīrā was a princely state in India, south of Mumbai, with an area of 844 square kilometres and a population (in 1941) of 103,557. Most of its inhabitants were Hindus, but the rulers were Muslims of African ancestry. The African-Indians of Janjīrā were called either Sīdī—probably from sayyidī, “my master,” originally a title for aristocrats in general, later confined largely to African nobles and now used for any African-Indian (for a discussion of etymologies, with alternative suggestions, see Lodhi, 302–3)—or Ḥabshī ( ḥabashī, Abyssinian). The ancestors of the Sīdīs of Ja…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jannābī, Abū Saʿīd

(735 words)

Author(s): Halm, Heinz
Abū Saʿīd al-Ḥasan b. Bahrām al-Jannābī (d. 300/913) founded the Ismāʿīlī Qarmaṭian communities on the Persian Gulf. He was of Persian origin, from the port of Jannāba (present-day Ganāva), on the Iranian coast. In the sawād (rural district) of Kufa, he married into a family that had been converted to the Ismāʿīlī daʿwa (mission), which was then headed by Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ and his brother-in-law Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdān (murdered 286/899). Abū Saʿīd was eventually won over to the daʿwa. Becoming a dāʿī (missionary) himself, he was initially active in his home region—Jannāba, Sīnīz, …
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jannābī, Abū Ṭāhir

(873 words)

Author(s): Halm, Heinz
Abū Ṭāhir Sulaymān b. Abī Saʿīd al-Jannābī (d. 332/944) was the son and successor of Abū Saʿīd al-Jannābī, the founder of the Qarmaṭian community in al-Baḥrayn. Born in Ramaḍān 294/June–July 906, he was still a minor when his father was murdered in 300/913, and, with his five brothers, he remained under the tutelage of his uncle, the dāʿī (missionary) al-Ḥasan b. Sanbar. When he reached his majority, in Ramaḍān 310/December 922–January 923, he took over the leadership and soon terrorised the population of southern Iraq. Every year from 310 to 314/923 …
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jannāwunī, Abū Zakariyyāʾ

(588 words)

Author(s): al-Salimi, Abdurrahman S.
Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā b. al-Khayr b. Abī l-Khayr al-Jannāwunī (first half of the sixth/twelfth century) was a celebrated scholar of Ibāḍī jurisprudence and theology, who lived in the region of Jabal Nafūsa, in modern-day Libya. He was a Berber, and his nisba derives from Ijnāwun (modern Djennaouen, near Jādū), which in the Rustamid period (161–296/778–909) had been the centre of Ibāḍī influence in Jabal Nafūsa. He was descended from a local scholarly Ibāḍī family, his best known predecessor being his grandfather Abū l-Khayr Tūzīn al-Jan…
Date: 2020-02-11

Japan, relations with the Islamic world

(2,622 words)

Author(s): Worringer, Renée
Japan’s relations with parts of the Islamic world commenced mainly in the nineteenth century, after the 1868 Meiji Restoration initiated a programme of modernisation in Japan that included attempts to establish political and economic ties with Iran and the Ottoman Empire. Prior to the nineteenth century, Japan was barely known to the Islamic world, other than as a distant country in East Asia that sometimes engaged in trade with Muslim states in Southeast Asia, such as the Malacca Sultanate, in the nin…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jassin, Hans Bague

(906 words)

Author(s): Feener, R. Michael
Hans Bague Jassin (1917–2000), usually referred to as H.B. Jassin, was an Indonesian literary and cultural figure whose polemics often brought him criticism from both the Marxists and the religious traditionalists. Born in Gorontalo, Sulawesi, he studied in Dutch colonial schools in Balikpapan, Kalimantan, and in Medan, Sumatra, where he became an avid reader of the new Indonesian journalism and literature being created there in the 1930s. He later took up an editorial position with Balai Pustaka …
Date: 2020-02-11

Jassy, Treaty of

(723 words)

Author(s): Şakul, Kahraman
The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (Iaşi, in today’s eastern Romania), the capital of Moldavia (Boğdan), on 15 Cemaziülevvel (Jumādā I) 1206/9 January 1792, with the mediation of Britain and Prussia, ended the Russo-Ottoman War of 1201–7/1787–92 in Russia’s favour. Though usually viewed in Ottoman history as an indicator of the Empire’s decline, it inspired comprehensive reforms, and Britain ultimately intervened to check growing Russian power in the Balkans and Black Sea. Neither side achieved its chief goal in the war: the resurrection of Byzantium and the kingdo…
Date: 2020-02-11

Javanese Wars of Succession

(1,454 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
There were three Javanese Wars of Succession—a term introduced by Western historians and not employed in indigenous Javanese sources—in 1704–8, 1719–23, and 1746–57. These wars transformed the political structure of the Mataram empire, pulled the Dutch East India Company (VOC) into seriously draining conflicts, and probably inflamed Javanese senses of cultural distance from the VOC. In 1703, the Mataram dynasty ruler Amangkurat II (r. 1677–1703) died and was succeeded by his son Amangkurat III (r. 1703–8; d. 1734). The kingdom was in considerable di…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jawālīqī, Abū Manṣūr

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Weipert, Reinhard
Abū Manṣūr Mawhūb b. Aḥmad al-Jawālīqī (466–539/1073–1144), also known as Ibn al-Jawālīqī, was a famous Arab philologist who lived in Baghdad. Growing up in Baghdad, the city in which he was born, al-Jawālīqī studied various subjects. He studied ḥadīth under the guidance of tutors such as Abū l-Qāsim Ibn al-Busrī (d. 474/1081), Abū Ṭāhir Ibn Abī l-Ṣaqr al-Anbārī (d. 476/1083), and Abū l-Fawāris Ṭirād b. Muḥammad al-Zaynabī (d. 491/1098). He studied lexicography, grammar, and literature (adab) under al-Khaṭīb al-Tibrīzī (d. 502/1109)—whose lessons he followed for sevent…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jawharī, Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Baalbaki, Ramzi
Abū Naṣr Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād al-Jawharī is the author of one of the most renowned Arabic lexica, al-Ṣiḥāḥ. His date of birth is unknown, and the sources differ as to the year of his death: the earliest date given is 393/1003 and the latest is about 400/1010. Al-Jawharī was born in Fārāb (Otrar) in central Asia and is referred to often as al-Fārābī. In his early years he studied under his maternal uncle, Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm al-Fārābī (d. 350/961), and later went to Baghdad, where his teachers were the celebrated gramm…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jawnpūrī, Maḥmūd

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Ahmed, Asad Q.
Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad al-ʿUmarī al-Fārūqī al-Jawnpūrī (993–1072/1585–1652) was an Indian scholar known primarily for his contributions, in Arabic and Persian, to philosophy (falsafa), theology (kalām), and rhetoric (ʿilm al-maʿānī wa-l-bayān). He was born in Jawnpur, in Uttar Pradesh, at the very beginning of Mughal suzerainty in the region. Al-Jawnpūrī received his early training from his grandfather, Shāh Muḥammad al-Jawnpūrī (d. 1032/1622), with whom he studied various books in the emerging curriculum (Lakhnawī, 5:181, 429). He then studied the rationalist disciplines (maʿq…
Date: 2020-02-11


(974 words)

Author(s): Morimoto, Kazuo
Sharīf al-Dīn Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad b. Sanāʾ al-Mulk Asʿad b. ʿAlī al-Jawwānī (525–88/1131–92), Egyptian genealogist and historian. Al-Jawwānī was born probably in Cairo (in the broad sense, including al-Fusṭāṭ, as it is used hereafter in this article), to a Ḥusaynid family, hence his honorific al-Sharīf (descendant of the Prophet). His father, a reputed grammarian who is also called qāḍī (judge) in the sources, was an immigrant from Mosul who attained a high status at the Fāṭimid court. Al-Jawwānī, too, served the Fāṭimids, most importantly as naqīb al-ashrāf (head of the Prophet’s …
Date: 2020-02-11

Jāyasī, Muḥammad

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Servan-Schreiber, Catherine
Malik Muḥammad Jāyasī (900–49/1495–1542), who lived in North India, is the most famous Ṣūfī poet of Avadhī and Hindī literature. He lived most of his life at Jais (Jāyas), a Ṣūfī centre in Rae Bareilly district. He refers with veneration to the Chistī shaykh Sayyid Ashraf Jahāngīr Simnānī (d. c.828/1425), and the Afghan king Shīr Shāh Sūr (r. 947–52/1540–5). Padmāvat, the text he composed in the Avadhī language, the eastern literary Hindi of the region of Awadh (around Lucknow, now Laknau) in 947/1540, is usually regarded as the finest Hindi Ṣūfī romanc…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jazarī, Badīʿ al-Zamān

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Jaritz, Gerhard
Badīʿ al-Zamān Abū l-ʿIzz Ismāʿīl b. al-Razzāz al-Jazarī (b. c.530/1136, d. 602/1206) was an outstanding scholar, engineer, and inventor. The only information about his life is found in the introduction to his richly illustrated manuscript containing a collection of fifty mechanical devices and inventions, with their detailed construction plans. His family originated in al-Jazīra (Upper Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and the Euphrates). Badīʿ al-Zamān (prodigy of the age) was an honorary title used al…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jazarī, Shams al-Dīn

(760 words)

Author(s): Eychenne, Mathieu
Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm al-Jazarī (d.739/1338), better known simply as al-Jazarī, was a Syrian historian, famous for his chief work entitled Ḥawādith al-zamān wa-anbāʾuhu wa-wafayāt al-akābir wa-l-aʿyān min abnāʾihi (“Events and news of the time, with obituaries of its great and noble sons”), known also as Taʾrīkh al-Jazarī (“Al-Jazarī’s history”). With the exception of a short biography written by his master and friend, the historian and traditionist al-Birzālī (d. 739/1339), and some autobiographical data in his own wri…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jazūlī, Abū Mūsā

(781 words)

Author(s): Masarwa, Alev
Abū Mūsā l-Jazūlī (also al-Juzūlī, d. c.607/1210, in Marrakech) was a religious scholar of the Mālikī school of law, a philologist, and a grammarian. He is best known for his work al-Muqaddima al-Jazūliyya fī l-naḥw (“The Jazūlian introduction to the study of grammar”), also known as al-Qānūn (“The canon” or “The compendium”) and al-Kurrāsa (“The booklet” or “The notebook”), which was the subject of more than twenty commentaries and influenced important grammarians from the Maghrib, al-Andalus, and the East. His full name is Abū Mūsā ʿĪsā b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Yalalbakht b. …
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jazzār, Abū l-Ḥusayn

(1,122 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Jamāl al-Dīn Abū l-Ḥusayn Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm b. Yaḥyā, known as al-Jazzār, “the butcher” (601–79/1204–81), was an Egyptian tradesman and a highly acclaimed poet who, along with his panegyrics and love poetry, was famous for his self-deprecating poems on daily life. He was born in al-Fusṭāṭ in Ṣafar 601/October 1204 (al-Birzālī) into a family of butchers, a trade that he would later learn and practise himself. From a young age, he cultivated his poetic talent—mainly as an autodidact—and it soon brought him some renown. Tempted by his…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Jazzār, Aḥmad Pasha

(1,288 words)

Author(s): Safi, Khaled
Aḥmad Pasha al-Jazzār was an Ottoman governor known for his ruthlessness and for successfully defending Acre against Napoleon Bonaparte’s siege in 1213/1799. Born in Bosnia in 1135/1722–3 (al-Bayṭār, 1:127; Shihābī, 2:796; Taʾrīkh ḥawādith al-Shām, 15), Aḥmad left his homeland to take up residence in Istanbul. Once there, however, he faced poverty and deprivation (al-Bayṭār, 1:127) and eventually resolved to move to Egypt in 1155/1769, where he entered the service of several Mamlūk leaders and was put in charge of a village in …
Date: 2020-02-11

Jerusalem since 1516

(5,245 words)

Author(s): Ben-Bassat, Yuval | Büssow, Johann
The Ottomans governed Jerusalem for slightly more than four hundred years, from the Ottoman conquest in 922/ 1516 to the end of Ottoman rule in 1336/1917. Late in 922/1516, Sultan Selim I (Selīm I, r. 918–26/1512–20) took over the city peacefully after defeating the army of the Mamlūk sultanate that had ruled Jerusalem from its seat in Cairo for more than two hundred fifty years (Somel, xxvii; Çelebi, Ottoman traveler, 317). Selim’s son and successor, Süleyman (Süleymān, r. 926–74/1520–66) undertook several major projects that were to change the face of the city …
Date: 2020-02-11
▲   Back to top   ▲