Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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(1,748 words)

Author(s): Bray, John
Ladakh (Ladākh) is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, bordering on Tibet, the Chinese province of Xinjiang, and the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan [Illustration 1]. Until 1834 it was an independent kingdom. The spoken language is closely related to Tibetan. Surviving Buddhist rock sculptures dating to the tenth and eleventh centuries C.E. testify to religious and artistic influence from Kashmir. In later centuries, all the main schools of Tibetan Buddhism established monaste…
Date: 2020-06-10


(394 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel
The Lakhm were a Qaḥṭānī Arab tribe of southern Syria closely connected to the Judhām and ʿĀmila. According to the traditional genealogy, the eponym Lakhm was of Qaḥṭānī origin and the brother of Judhām and ʿĀmila, although some argued that the tribe was actually from the Nizār (Caskel, 2:53–6; Ibn Durayd, 225–7). In historical times, these three “sister tribes” were political allies and occupied the same region in southern Syria. The Lakhm were considered the most ancient and illustrious of the …
Date: 2020-06-10


(907 words)

Author(s): Tsibenko, Veronika
The Laks are an indigenous people of the mountainous part of Dagestan, in the Northern Caucasus. Ancient Greek authors (Herodotus 7.72, Strabo 11.5.1, Plutarch, Pompey, 35) mentioned the Ligyes (Λίγυες), Legaes (Λήγας), and Leges (Λήγες), who are supposed to be the ancestors of Laks as well as of the Lezgis and some other peoples of Dagestan. The capital of Lakia, the historical land of the Laks, is Kumukh (Ar. Ghumīk), so the Laks are known also as Kazi-Kumukhs. In the sixth century C.E., Kumukh was incorporated into the Sāsānid empire. The ruling dynasty became related …
Date: 2020-06-10


(917 words)

Author(s): Beach, Milo C.
Laʾl (also Lāl, fl. 988–1014/1580–1605) was an important and prolific artist in the workshops of the Mughal emperor Akbar (r. 963–1014/1556–1605), contributing illustrations to most major imperial manuscript projects. His name, a single word as was customary, indicates that he was Hindu, as were many of his colleagues in the imperial workshops. We know no further details of his early life. He was the father of Kishendas, a minor artist and workshop administrator (Seyller, Scribal notes, 275). Laʾl’s importance in Akbar’s workshops is clearly stated in the Āʾīn-i Akbarī (“Annals of …
Date: 2020-06-10

Lala Mustafa Paşa

(730 words)

Author(s): Costantini, Vera
Lala Mustafa (Lālā Muṣṭafā) Paşa (d. 988/1580) was a tenth-/sixteenth-century Ottoman vizier and military commander. He was born in the Bosnian village of Soqol (on an unknown date) and admitted to the Sultan’s court thanks to his influential family connections. He rose rapidly through the ranks of the Ottoman hierarchy, but incurred the disfavour of the grand vizier Rustem (Rūstem) Paşa (d. 968/1561) in 962/1555. He was associated with the entourage of Süleyman (Süleymān) I’s (r. 926–74/1520–66) most probable successor Bayezid (Bāyezīd, 931–69/1525–61) and was appointed lala ( lāl…
Date: 2020-06-10

Lala Şahin Paşa

(510 words)

Author(s): Kastritsis, Dimitris J.
Lala Şahin (Lālā Şāhīn) Paşa (d. 788/1386?) was tutor ( lala) to the Ottoman sultan Murad (Murād) I (763–91/1362–89) and the first person in the Ottoman state to hold the title of beylerbey ( beglerbegi, lit. “lord of lords,” in this period, commander-in-chief of the army; in later usage, governor general). Apparently, Şahin was a convert to Islam, and, according to Taşköprülüzade (Taşköprülüzāde (also Taşköprüzade, Taşköprizade), d. 968/1561), a manumitted slave of Sultan Orhan (Orkhān, r. c.724–63/1324–62). Circa 760/1359, Orh…
Date: 2020-06-10

Lālla Awīsh al-Majdhūba

(667 words)

Author(s): van Beek, Mariëtte
Lālla Awīsh al-Majdhūba was a waliyya ṣāliḥa (virtuous saint) whose nicknames and oral histories help explain the rituals that are performed at her sanctuary in Assoual, in the medina of Marrakech. The local historian Ibn al-Muwaqqit (fl. ninth/fifteenth-century) mentions Lālla Awīsh al-Majdhūba in his al-Saʿāda al-abadiyya (“Eternal happiness”), but he gives no birth or death date. He relates a short story about a poor man whom she transported miraculously from Mecca to Marrakech, together with her sheep, and says that she travelled to and from Mecca daily. Her run-down zāwiya (san…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-Lamaṭī, Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak

(804 words)

Author(s): Chouiref, Tayeb
Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Sijilmāsī al-Lamaṭī (d. 1156/1743) was a religious scholar. Born in Sijilmāsa, Morocco, in about 1090/1679, he settled in Fez in 1110/1698–9 and died there on 12 Jumādā I 1156/4 July 1743, after acquiring the title of shaykh al-jamāʿa (master of the community of scolars) granted to the dean of professors (Ibn Sūda, 141). In his youth he attended courses led by his maternal cousin Aḥmad al-Ḥabīb al-Sijilmāsī al-Lamaṭī (d. 1165/1751–2), who was later renowned for his holiness (Lévi-Provençal, 309). One of his first masters in Fe…
Date: 2020-08-13

al-Lamkī, Aḥmad

(392 words)

Author(s): Ghazal, Amal
Aḥmad b. Muhammad b. Nāṣir al-Lamkī (1929–97), a prominent member of the Omani community in Zanzibar, was a political activist, newspaper editor, and ambassador. He was born in Zanzibar to a wealthy Omani family and was sent to Cairo at the age of ten to pursue his education. He resided in Cairo between 1939 and 1951, worked for Radio Cairo, and spent the last two years in prison for his anti-British and anti-monarchy activities. He then moved to London where he co-founded the Association of Zanzibar…
Date: 2020-06-10

Lane, Edward William

(1,588 words)

Author(s): Thompson, Jason
Edward William Lane (1801–76) was a British scholar of modern Egypt, translator of the Arabian nights, and lexicographer of the Arabic language [Illustration 1]. Originally apprenticed as an engraver, Lane did not pursue engraving as a career although his artistic training served him well in his early scholarly work. Instead, his imagination was captured by Egypt in 1821 when he attended the sensational exhibition of Giovanni Battista Belzoni (d. 1823) in Piccadilly, London. Belzoni’s exhibition was about the …
Date: 2020-08-13

Larbi Ben Sari

(1,108 words)

Author(s): Glasser, Jonathan
Larbi Ben Sari (al-ʿArbī b. Ṣārī, b. c.1870, d. 1964), often known by the honorific Shaykh al-ʿArbī (Cheikh Larbi), was the leading performer of the classical Arab-Andalusian musical tradition in the western Algerian city of Tlemcen during the twentieth century. Inheritor of a vast instrumental and vocal repertoire transmitted, through the end of the nineteenth century, by word of mouth and through manuscript collections of poetic texts, Cheikh Larbi played a key role in defining, conserving, and …
Date: 2020-06-10

Last Judgment

(1,777 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
The Last Judgment in Islamic belief takes place at the end of human history, after the appearance of the Signs of the Apocalypse (ashrāṭ al-sāʿa) and once the dead have been resurrected and ushered to the Place of the Assembly (arḍ al-maḥshar). Unbelievers and sinners are then judged to receive punishment in hell, while the believers are granted paradise to reap eternal reward. Many elements of the Last Judgment are outlined in the Qurʾān—see 6:38, 25:34, 42:29, 81:5 (the Gathering, ḥashr); 56:42–3, 77:29–31, 78:38 (the Standing, qiyām); 11:18, 18:48, 69:18 (the Exposure, ʿarḍ); 17:13,…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-Lawātī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh

(656 words)

Author(s): Gaiser, Adam R.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad b. Nāṣir b. Miyāl (or Mayyāl) b. Yūsuf al-Lawātī (d. 528/1133–4) was a North African Ibāḍī historian, biographer, poet, and specialist in traditions (aḥādīth). He was born in the Barqa province (i.e., ancient Cyrenaica, present day eastern costal Libya) in the first half of the fifth/eleventh century, into the Berber tribe of the Lawāta. In 450/1058–9, at the age of 18, he settled in Ajlū in the oasis of Arīgh (modern day Oued Righ, Algeria), where he died at the age of 96 in 528/1133–4 (…
Date: 2020-06-10

Lawu, Sunan

(652 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Sunan Lawu, the spirit of Mount Lawu—an active volcano 3,265 metres high on the border between Central and East Java, Indonesia, east of the court city of Surakarta—appears to be an ancient deity. An Old Javanese manuscript that refers to King Kertanagara (d. 1292) of the East Javanese kingdom of Singhasari and deals with regulations for Hindu-Buddhist religious elites refers to the dewa giri Lalawu (the deity of Mount Lawu) (Pigeaud, 3:132). There are two remarkable fifteenth-century Hindu temples, Candhi Sukuh and Candhi Cetha, on the mountain, both celebr…
Date: 2020-06-10


(1,304 words)

Author(s): Glover, John
The Layennes are a Ṣūfī order of Senegal. Like the better known Murīdiyya, founded in Senegal in 1883 by Amadou Bamba (d. 1927), they take pride in their Senegalese origins. The Layennes are a small group, numbering about thirty thousand, and are concentrated amongst the Lebu people of the Cap-Vert region and the surrounding coast. The Layennes (lit., people of Allāh) were founded in 1884 by the Lebu fisherman Libasse Thiaw (d. 1909), who claimed to be the mahdī and the bodily reincarnation of the prophet Muḥammad. Dubbed by his Lebu disciples Seydina Limamou Laye (lit., our master, the imām
Date: 2020-06-10

Laylā l-Akhyaliyya

(833 words)

Author(s): Ferrer i Serra, Jordi
Laylā l-Akhyaliyya (d. c.80/700) of the tribe of ʿUqayl (a branch of ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa) was an Arabic poet of the early Umayyad era, famous above all for her elegies ( rithāʾ) on her distant kinsman Tawba b. al-Ḥumayyir, with whom she had an ʿudhrī (platonic) love affair, and for her verbal exchanges with various caliphs and governors. Despite her romance with Tawba, to which al-Zubayr b. Bakkār (d. 256/870) dedicated a (now lost) monograph, and her association with some of the most famous public figures of her time, very little is known a…
Date: 2020-08-13


(1,300 words)

Author(s): Bellér-Hann, Ildikó
The Laz (self-designation, Lazi) are an ethnic group concentrated in the southeastern corner of the Black Sea, in the Turkish provinces of Artvin and Rize. A minority lives on the Georgian side of the modern state border. The Laz in northeast Turkey share space with neighbouring groups, including ethnic Turks, Hemshin, and Georgians. Together with Mingrelian, Georgian, and Svan, their language (Lazuri) belongs to the South-Caucasian family. Migrants from the northeast (today’s southern Abkhazia),…
Date: 2020-06-10

Lead Tablets, Granadan

(1,597 words)

Author(s): Wiegers, Gerard A.
The Granadan Lead Tablets comprise a collection of twenty-one bound books of lead, consisting of between three and thirty-seven round leaves of lead (called laminae). In total, there are about 240 plates containing written texts. Twenty of them are written in Arabic, and one (no. 17), The essence of the Gospel (Ḥaqīqat al-injīl), is in a magical script (Van Koningsveld and Wiegers, The Sacromonte parchment), except for one leaf written in Arabic. Lead Book 1 and 2 have bilingual Latin and Arabic titles, with Latin used on the covers [Illustrations 1 and 2]. …
Date: 2020-06-02

Lembaga Dakwah Islam Indonesia

(866 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Lembaga Dakwah Islam Indonesia (LDII, the Indonesian Islamic Proselytisation Institute) is a controversial and, in the eyes of its opponents, an extremist and deviant Islamic organisation. It has changed its name several times after being banned under previous names and was known serially as Darul Hadis, Islam Jamaah, Yayasan Karyawan Islam (YAKARI), and Lembaga Karyawan Islam (LEMKARI) before adopting the name Lembaga Dakwah Islam Indonesia in 1990. After living for ten years in Mecca, H. Nurhasan Ubaidah Lubis (d. 1982), the founder of this organisation, retu…
Date: 2020-06-10

Lembaga Kajian Islam dan Sosial

(707 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Robert W.
Lembaga Kajian Islam dan Sosial (LKIS, Institute for Islamic and Social Studies) is a Muslim non-governmental training institute and publishing house established in 1993 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Although it has experienced financial challenges in recent years, LKIS’s publishing house remains one of Indonesia’s two premier publishers of critical Muslim scholarship on classical fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), human rights, and Muslim feminism. LKIS alumni have spawned an assortment of educational and activist initiatives, most of them aimed at invok…
Date: 2020-06-10
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