Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.



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Maʿbad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Juhanī

(746 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Maʿbad b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUkaym al-Juhanī (executed c.80/699) was a Basran religious thinker who was associated with the Qadarī doctrine of human free will (qadar). While he was ultimately condemned as a heretic, for a time he enjoyed a good reputation in Basra and was trusted by the Umayyad authorities. Al-Ḥajjāj b. Yūsuf (d. 95/714), governor of the East, recommended him to the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik (r. 65–86/685–705) as an emissary to the Byzantine emperor. Maʿbad also tutored one of the caliph’s sons. He may also have…
Date: 2019-07-18

Madagascar

(3,248 words)

Author(s): Desplat, Patrick
Madagascar, the world’s fourth largest island, lies in the southwestern Indian Ocean, separated by the Mozambique Channel from the African mainland by approximately 420 kilometres. Neighbouring countries are the Comoros in the northwest and Mauritius and the French overseas department of La Réunion in the east. In 1896, the island was colonised by the French. It gained independence in 1960 as the Republic of Madagascar, with Antananarivo as its capital. The estimated population in 2017 was twent…
Date: 2019-07-18

Madanī, Ḥusayn Aḥmad

(1,463 words)

Author(s): Metcalf, Barbara D.
Mawlānā Sayyid Ḥusayn Aḥmad Madanī (1879–1957) was the foremost madrasa-based Islamic scholar to participate actively in the Indian nationalist movement and oppose, on both pragmatic and Islamic grounds, the creation of the separate state of Pakistan. Madanī attended the Dār al-ʿUlūm at Deoband, a major centre for reformist Ḥanafī scholarship, where he studied with Mawlānā Maḥmūd al-Ḥasan (d. 1920) and became a disciple in taṣawwuf (Ṣūfism) of Mawlānā Rashīd Aḥmad Gangohī (d. 1905). In 1892, his pious father resigned as a government schoolteacher and moved t…
Date: 2019-07-18

Madjid, Nurcholish

(1,070 words)

Author(s): Kersten, Carool
Nurcholish Madjid (1939–2005) was a leading Indonesian Muslim intellectual, who began his career as a prominent student leader in the 1960s and became one of the most influential Islamic thinkers and activists in late twentieth-century Indonesia. He was born in Jombang, the heartland of traditionalist Javanese Islam, to parents that subscribed to reformist-modernist Islamic ideas, leading to his family being socially ostracised. This experience was formative for the young man and shaped his lifel…
Date: 2019-07-04

Madrasa in South Asia

(3,854 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Francis
The madrasa in South Asia was the main institution for transmitting Islamic knowledge and sustaining Islamic identity. 1. The Delhi Sultanate The first madrasas appear to have been founded after the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate in 602/1206. One was the Muʿizziya, probably founded by Iltutmish (r. 607–33/1211–36) and named after Muḥammad Ghūrī’s title Muʿizz al-Dīn (Muḥammad Ghūrī ruled in Ghazna 569–99/1173–1203). The second, the Nāṣiriyya, was built by Balban (r. 664–86/1266–87), while he was chief minister t…
Date: 2019-07-18

Madrasa in Southeast Asia

(1,650 words)

Author(s): van Bruinessen, Martin
The madrasa in Southeast Asia is commonly known as pesantren or pondok. The root of the former term is the word santri, which may be of South Indian origin and means student (of religion); pondok is the local pronunciation of Arabic funduq and refers to the dormitory or row of huts in which the santri are lodged. In some regions the institution is known by yet other names, such as dayah in Aceh and surau in West Sumatra. The chief teacher of the pesantren is the kiai, who holds unchallenged authority over the institution. In Indonesia, the term madrasah refers to a different type of school, …
Date: 2019-07-04

Madura

(1,361 words)

Author(s): Pribadi, Yanwar
Madura, an island in the Java Sea and part of the Indonesian province of East Java, is characterised by a mixture of strong Islamic characteristics and a distinctive local culture. It comprises an area of approximately 4,250 square kilometres and consists of four regencies ( kabupaten), which are, from west to east: Bangkalan, Sampang, Pamekasan, and Sumenep. According to the 2015 census, the island had a population of 3,808,533. The main language spoken is Madurese. There are two dialects, with varying levels of prestige accorded to them,…
Date: 2019-07-18

Madurai

(2,632 words)

Author(s): Shokoohy, Mehrdad | Shokoohy, Natalie H.
Madurai (also spelt Madura or Mathura, in Tamil Nadu state, India, latitude N 9°54′, longitude E 78°6′), a Hindu pilgrimage centre on the river Vaigai, was under Muslim rule following raids by the Delhi sultans ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Khaljī (r. 695–715/1296–1316) (Vaṣṣāf, 4:527; Amīr Khusraw, 126, 172–4, 181; Baranī, 283) and his successor Mubārak Shāh (r. 716–20/1316–20) (Baranī, 398–9; Firishta, 1:126), culminating in the short-lived independent Maʿbar sultanate (734–79/1334–77). As governor, Jalāl al-D…
Date: 2019-07-18

Maḥbūb b. al-Raḥīl, Abū Sufyān

(776 words)

Author(s): Gaiser, Adam R.
Abū Sufyān Maḥbūb b. al-Raḥīl (or al-Ruḥayl) al-Qurayshī al-Makhzūmī al-ʿAbdī was a Basran Ibāḍī jurist, theologian, and historian who became a leader of the Basran Ibāḍī community after the death of Wāʾil b. Ayyūb, in about 190/806. His dates are uncertain: Crone and Zimmerman (310–1) propose his birth before 140/757 and his death in about 210/825; equally uncertain are his tribal identifications as a Qurayshī (al-Saʿdī, 8:303) or an ʿAbdī (i.e., a member of the ʿAbd al-Qays) (al-Darjīnī, 2:278), both of which Wilkinson doubts (Ibāḍism, 164). When his mother re-married, he bec…
Date: 2019-07-18

Maḥfūẓ, Najīb

(1,774 words)

Author(s): Allen, Roger M.A.
Najīb Maḥfūẓ (10 December 1911–30 August 2006) was Egypt's most prominent writer of fictional narratives in the twentieth century. In 1988 he was the first Arab author to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. 1. Life Maḥfūẓ was born in the Jamāliyya quarter in the old city of Cairo, but moved with his family to the suburb of ʿAbbāsiyya while he was still a child. Entering the University of Cairo as a student of philosophy, he was already beginning to show an interest in those broader topics that were to become the central them…
Date: 2019-07-18

Maḥmūd, ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm

(876 words)

Author(s): Aishima, Hatsuki
ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Maḥmūd (1910–78), a leading Ṣūfī scholar of the 1960s and 70s in Egypt and reformist rector of al-Azhar Mosque University during the period of Sadat’s presidency (1970–81), is credited for his dedication to al-Azhar and for popularising Ṣūfī knowledge through his publications and radio broadcast. His commitment to revitalising Islamic knowledge earned him the honorary title of “the al-Ghazālī of the twentieth century.” Since 1979 his mawlid (annual birthday festival) has been celebrated in al-Salām, his home village in the Nile Delta. This two-day …
Date: 2019-07-18

Maḥmūd Gāvān

(3,038 words)

Author(s): Flatt, Emma
Khvāja ʿImād al-Dīn Maḥmūd Gīlānī (813–86/1411–81), commonly known as Maḥmūd Gāvān, was a powerful vizier of the Bahmanī sultanate of South India. Born into a politically important family in Gīlān, Gāvān seems initially to have entered service with the rulers of Gīlān (Sherwani, Gawan, 22–4, citing al-Sakhāwī). Following the death of his father, Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Khvāja Kamāl al-Gīlānī, Maḥmūd and his elder brother Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad were forced into exile by a rival political faction, headed by two men who had once been protégés of the brothers’ own family ( Riyāḍ al-inshāʾ, 22…
Date: 2019-07-18

al-Majdhūb, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(647 words)

Author(s): Rodríguez Mediano, Fernando
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Majdhūb (ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAyyad b. Yaʿqūb b. Salama b. Khashshān al-Ṣanhājī al-Dukkālī al-Farajī, called Abū Zayd and Abū Muḥammad; Ramaḍān 909–9 Dhū l-Ḥijja 976/February–March 1504–25 May 1569) was a saint representing, as no other in Moroccan history, the characteristics of the majdhūb, the holy man transported by sudden spells of mystical rapture and often known for eccentric behaviour. Little is known of his historical character, and the available sources should be used with caution, because most of the material de…
Date: 2019-07-18

Majelis Permusyawaratan Ulama

(690 words)

Author(s): Feener, R. Michael
The Majelis Permusyawaratan Ulama (Consultative Council of Ulama) is the state-affiliated council of ʿ ulamāʾ (Islamic religious scholars) in the Indonesian province of Aceh. This designation was adopted in 2000, signalling a newly expanded mandate for this organisation as part of a new state Islamic legal system established in Aceh in the twenty-first century. Aceh has had such a council of ulama since 1965, making it one of the earliest in the region. The founding mandate of the Majelis Ulama Daerah Aceh (Aceh Regional Council Ulama) was to institutiona…
Date: 2019-07-04

al-Mājishūn

(582 words)

Author(s): Muranyi, Miklos
Abū ʿAbdallāh (Abū Aṣbagh) ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAbdallāh b. Abī Salama al-Mājishūn (d. 164/780–1), a mawlā (client) of the Āl al-Munkadir b. al-Ḥuḍayr al-Taymī in Medina, was, with Mālik b. Anas (d. 179/796), one of the most renowned disciples of Rabīʿa b. Abī ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (called “Rabīʿat al-Raʾy”; d. 136/753). The rivalries between Mālik and al-Mājishūn, mentioned repeatedly in the biographical dictionaries of scholars, were probably what prompted al-Mājishūn to leave Medina and to settle in Baghdad following…
Date: 2019-07-18

Makhdūm-i Aʿẓam, Aḥmad

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Gardner, Vika
Aḥmad b. Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Khwājagī Kāsānī Makhdūm-i Aʿẓam (866–949/1461–1542) was a Ṣūfī, the author of approximately thirty religious treatises, and the founder of saintly lineages in the Naqshbandiyya Ṣūfī order. He was born in Kasan-sai (Kosonsoi), in the Farghāna (Fergana) valley, in present-day Uzbekistan, and buried in Dahbīd (Dahpīd), outside Samarqand. The Maṭlab al-ṭālibīn, written in the mid-eleventh/seventeenth century by Abūl-ʿAbbās Muḥammad Ṭālib b. Taj al-Dīn Ḥasan Khwāja Jūybārī, a descendant of a disciple of Makhdūm-i Aʿẓam (see…
Date: 2019-07-18

Makhlūf, Muḥammad Ḥasanayn

(896 words)

Author(s): Chih, Rachida
Muḥammad Ḥasanayn Makhlūf al-ʿAdawī al-Mālikī (1861–1936) was an Egyptian scholar and Ṣūfī, father of Ḥasanayn Muḥammad Makhlūf (d. 1961), muftī of Egypt from 1946 to 1950. He was born in Banī ʿAdī, a city in the Asyūṭ governorate of Upper Egypt renowned for the number of Azharī ʿulamāʾ who originated there. He studied at al-Azhar University, where he obtained the ʿĀlimiyya (the highest degree awarded by the university before its reconstitution by the government in 1963) in uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of jurisprudence) and was made professor in 1887. He then steadily ascende…
Date: 2019-07-18

Malay and other languages of insular Southeast Asia

(2,454 words)

Author(s): Wieringa, Edwin P.
Malay is an Austronesian language spoken by most inhabitants of insular Southeast Asia. It is the national language of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei and one of the national languages of Singapore. From the twentieth century on, it has been known officially and popularly as Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language, Indonesian) and Bahasa Malaysia (Malaysian language, Malaysian). It is diglossic, with a formal and standard form of the language used in government and education and for all official matters, and …
Date: 2019-07-18

al-Malībārī, Zayn al-Dīn

(1,266 words)

Author(s): Amer, Ayal
Abū Yaḥyā Zayn al-Dīn b. ʿAlī (873–928/1467–1522), known as Zayn al-Dīn I, and Aḥmad Zayn al-Dīn b. Muḥammad al-Ghazālī al-Fannānī al-Malībārī (938–91/1532–83), known as Zayn al-Dīn II, were two of the most celebrated leaders of the Mappila (Māppila) Muslim community in Kerala. They belonged to the Makhdūm family, members of which played a central role in the leadership of the Mappila community during its struggle against Portuguese encroachment in Kerala in the tenth/sixteenth century. The Makhdūm family migrated from Maʿbar, in Yemen, in the early ninth/fifteenth ce…
Date: 2019-07-18

al-Mālikī, Abū Bakr

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Hentati, Nejmeddine
Abū Bakr ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Qurashī al-Qayrawānī al-Mālikī was a historian, Mālikī and Ashʿarī jurist, and traditionist who was an ardent supporter of Mālikism and contributed to the diffusion of Ashʿarism in Ifrīqiya. His only book, Riyāḍ al-nufūs (“The gardens of the souls”), lists the biographies of Mālikī scholars in Ifrīqiya. Al-Mālikī died after 449/1057, when the Banū Hilāl entered al-Qayrawān (as al-Dabbāgh, d. 699/1300, identified him as one of the scholars who remained in al-Qayrawān after its destruction by the Banū Hilāl in his Maʿālim al-īmān, commen…
Date: 2019-07-18
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