Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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al-Nābigha al-Shaybānī

(558 words)

Author(s): Weipert, Reinhard
Al-Nābigha al-Shaybānī or Nābighat Banī Shaybān (lit., the poetic genius of the Banū Shaybān) was the honorific name of ʿAbdallāh b. al-Mukhāriq b. Sulaym (d. c.126/744), a Bedouin poet who belonged to the Banū Dhuhl b. Shaybān, a subtribe of the Bakr b. Wāʾil (for his complete genealogy, see his Dīwān, ed. Yaʿqūb, 51, and Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, 7:106). He lived in what is today lower Iraq and travelled frequently to Damascus, where he met Umayyad caliphs, such as ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (r. 65–86/685–705), al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (r. 86–96…
Date: 2020-06-10

Nafīsa, al-Sayyida

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Ruggles, D. Fairchild
Al-Sayyida Nafīsa (d. Ramaḍān 208/January 824) was a pious and learned woman who became venerated in Cairo as one of its most celebrated saints. She was the daughter of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbī Ṭālib (d. 167/783), the governor of Medina and a ḥadīth transmitter, and thus directly descended from the prophet Muḥammad. That she lived in prominent Shīʿī circles is evident from her marriage to Abū Muḥammad Isḥāq al-Muʾtamin, son of the famed Shīʿī Imām and ḥadīth transmitter Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq (d. 148/765), and a ḥadīth transmitter himself. Moving from Medina to al-Fusṭā…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-Naḥḥās, Abū Jaʿfar

(889 words)

Author(s): Weipert, Reinhard
Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Naḥḥās (d. 338/950) was an Egyptian philologist with expertise in the fields of Qurʾānic philology, grammar, and pre-Islamic Arabic poetry. From Egypt, al-Naḥḥās, who is also called Ibn al-Naḥḥās or al-Ṣaffār by some biographers, travelled to Baghdad, where he studied philology under al-Zajjāj (d. 311/923), who familiarised him with the Kitāb by the famed grammarian Sībawayh (d. c.180/796). He also studied philology with ʿAlī b. Sulaymān al-Akhfash al-Aṣghar (d. 315/927), Nifṭawayh (d. 323/935), and Abū Bakr …
Date: 2020-06-10


(970 words)

Author(s): Repp, Richard C.
Mustafa Naima (Muṣṭafā Naʿīmā, 1065–1128/1655–1716), known by his pen name (mahlas, makhlaṣ) Naima, was the author of one of the most highly regarded histories of the Ottoman state, the first in a series of state-sponsored histories that would continue until the end of the empire. He was born in Aleppo, probably around 1065/1655, the son and grandson of Janissary commanders resident in the city. He arrived in Istanbul around 1091/1680, where he entered the baltacılar ( bālṭacīlar, halberdiers), one of the corps of palace guards, and was trained for the scribal service. …
Date: 2020-04-09


(596 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. Edmund | updated by, ¨ | Ruggles, D. Fairchild
Nāʾīn (Nāyin) is a small town (lat. N 32°52′ long. E 53°05′, elev. 1,408 metres) on the southwestern edge of the Great Desert of central Iran, on the road connecting Yazd with Isfahan and Qum. The town, known for its large citadel and its congregational mosque, seems to have had a pre-Islamic history, but nothing is known of it. The mediaeval Islamic geographers place it in the sardsīr (cooler upland regions) and describe it as located administratively within Fārs but as dependent on either Yazd or Isfahan. According to Mustawfī (69, trans. 77), its citadel, wh…
Date: 2020-06-10

Najīb al-Dīn al-Samarqandī

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Müller, Juliane
Najīb al-Dīn Abū Ḥāmid (or Abū l-Muḥāmid or Abū l-Fatḥ) Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-Samarqandī (d. 619/1222) was a physician and author of several books on medicine. Little is known about his life other than that he suffered a violent death during the Mongol conquest of Herat in 619/1222 (Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa, 2:31; cf. GAL, 1:490–1; Iskandar, 451; Ullmann, 170). He started writing medical texts before 594/1197–8, as can be deduced from the oldest known dated copy of one of his works (a Mosul manuscript described in GAL, 1:491; cf. Müller, 313). Al-Samarqandī either worked or studied …
Date: 2020-04-09


(1,382 words)

Author(s): Fenech, Louis E.
Nānak (873–946/1469–1539) was the first of ten personal Sikh gurūs (teachers). Gurū Nānak was born on the Panjāb frontier, where Indic and Islamicate cultures interacted intimately. Nānak’s ideas, like those of the many exponents of the nirguńa sampradaya or Sant tradition of northern India with whom Nānak is often aligned in contemporary scholarship, thus bore striking affinities to both Islamic and Hindu traditions. While Nānak was not the first whose ideas demonstrated such connections, he was the most remarkable, in that he ref…
Date: 2020-06-10

Naon, Avram

(538 words)

Author(s): Mignon, Laurent
Avram Naon (also Avram Naum and İbrahim Nom, 1878–1947) was a lawyer, editor, and poet who advocated the use of Turkish as a literary language among the Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey. Born in Istanbul, he completed his primary education at the Şule-i Maarif (Şuʿle-I Maʿārif, “The Light of Education”), a Jewish school in the Hasköy district. After graduating from the Dersaadet İdadi-yi Mülki-yi Şahanesi (Der-saʿādet ʿİdādī-yi Mülkī-yi Şāhānesi, Imperial Civil High School), …
Date: 2020-06-10

al-Nawbakhtī, al-Ḥasan b. Mūsā

(1,141 words)

Author(s): Weaver, James
Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. Mūsā al-Nawbakhtī (d. after 300/912) was a member of the prominent al-Nawbakhtī family of Baghdad and an Imāmī Shīʿī scholar active in the fields of theology and philosophy. He was known by later authors for his rich doxographical output, as well as his involvement in an influential group of late third/ninth-century Imāmī theologians who adopted several theses of the Muʿtazilī theological school. The information about his life is scant. The Shīʿī biobibliographer Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Najāshī (d. 450/1058) tells us only that he was active “…
Date: 2020-06-02


(2,587 words)

Author(s): Adamson, Peter
Neoplatonism was a philosophical tradition of late antiquity that had a powerful influence in the Islamic world, through Arabic translations of Neoplatonic texts in Greek. Ideas deriving from Neoplatonic philosophy are to be found in the work of many of the pre-eminent thinkers of the Islamic world, such as al-Kindī (d. after 256/870), al-Fārābī (d. 339/950–1), Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna, d. 428/1037), al-Suhrawardī (d. 587/1191), and Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1050/1640). 1. Neoplationism in Late Antiquity The term “Neoplatonism” was coined in the nineteenth century to describe a tradi…
Date: 2020-06-02