Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

B (-bāʾ- -b-l-gh - b-s-l)

(514 words)

b-l-gh    ablagh    Possession and Possessions    balagha    Children    Guardianship    Inimitability    Pilgrimage    balāgh    Language and Style of the Qurʾān    Names of the Qurʾān    Prophets and Prophethood    bāligh    Maturity    Witnessing and Testifying    muballigh    Mosque    Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān    tablīgh    Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān    tablīgh al-daʿwa   b-l-w/b-l-y    baliya    Adultery and Fornication    balā    Grammar and the Qurʾān    Suffering    Trial    balāʾ    Suffering    ibtilāʾ    Trial    ubtuliya    Moses   b-n-y    b…

B (-bāʾ- -b-s-m - b-y-ʿ)

(633 words)

b-s-m    tabassama    Laughter   b-s-ṭ    bisāṭ    Earth    Furniture and Furnishings    House, Domestic and Divine   b-sh-r    bashar    Adam and Eve    Children of Israel    Gender    God and his Attributes    Medicine and the Qurʾān    Muḥammad    Prophets and Prophethood    Servants    Spirit    Teaching    bashshir    Muḥammad    bashīr    Good News    Joy and Misery    Literature and the Qurʾān    Muḥammad    Names of the Qurʾān    Pairs and Pairing    Persian Literature and the Qurʾān    Warner    bush[u]r    Air and Wind    Good News    bushira    Good News    bushra…

B (-bāʾ- - b-y-ḍ - basmala)

(435 words)

b-y-ḍ    abyaḍ    Colors    bayḍ    Springs and Fountains    bayḍāʾ    Springs and Fountains    ibyaḍḍa    Colors   b-ʾ-r    biʾr    Water    biʾr sabaʿ    Abraham   b-ʾ-s    baʾisa    Ethics and the Qurʾān    baʾs    Courage    Power and Impotence    baʾsā    Chastisement and Punishment    biʾsa    Grammar and the Qurʾān    Hell and Hellfire   b-ʿ-d    baʿd    History and the Qurʾān    buʿd    Grammar and the Qurʾān   b-ʿ-l    baʿal    South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic    baʿl, pl. buʿūla    Baal    Family    Marriage and Divorce   b-ʿ-r    baʿīr    Camel    Vehicles   b-ʿ-th    ba…

B (Badr - Southeast Asian Qurʾānic Literature)

(681 words)

Badr  Badr   Battle of (2/624)   Apparition   Badr   Book   Byzantines   Chronology and the Qurʾān   Companions of the Prophet   Consultation   Courage   Criterion   Day, Times of   Days of God   Dreams and Sleep   Emigrants and Helpers   Expeditions and Battles   Fasting   Fate   Food and Drink   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān   Goliath   Good News   Guardianship   Intercession   Jews and Judaism   Life   Mosque of the Dissension   Myths and Legends in the Qurʾān   Opposition to Muḥammad   Oppressed on Earth, The   Orphans   Prayer   Punishment Stories   Qaynuqāʿ (Ban…

B (Bangladesh - Beijing)

(1,139 words)

Bangladesh  Printing of the Qurʾān  South Asian Literatures and the Qurʾān  Women and the Qurʾān Bankipore (India)  Shīʿism and the Qurʾān Banū see under respective tribal eponyms [Banū] Asad  Apostasy  Dialects  Grammar and the Qurʾān  Inimitability  Khadīja  Soothsayer  Tribes and Clans [Banū] Bakr  Breaking Trusts and Contracts [Banū] Ghaṭafān  Apostasy  Parties and Factions [Banū] Hāshim  Caravan  People of the House  Syria [Banū] Kaʿb b. Qurayẓa  Qurayẓa (Banū al-) [Banū] Khuzāʿa  Breaking Trusts and Contracts  Emigrants and Helpers  Expeditions and Battles  Geography  …

B (Bektashiyya (Ṣūfī order) - Bishr b. al-Muʿtamir (d. ca. 210/825))

(736 words)

Bektashiyya (Ṣūfī order)  African Americans  Magic  Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān Belial  Antichrist Bell, R.  Afternoon  Apocalypse  Baptism  Book  Cain and Abel  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Clay  Contemporary Critical Practices and the Qurʾān  Death and the Dead  Form and Structure of the Qurʾān  Fātiḥa  Impeccability  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Muḥammad  Mysterious Letters  Narratives  Night of Power  Pit  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān  Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān  Revision and Alteration  Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān  Theolo…

B (Bisri Mustofa - Brethren of Purity)

(552 words)

Bisri Mustofa  Southeast Asian Qurʾānic Literature Bivar, A.  African Literature Biʾr Maʿūna  Abrogation  Chronology and the Qurʾān Biḥārī  Manuscripts of the Qurʾān Blachère, R.  Abraha  Apocalypse  Basmala  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Contemporary Critical Practices and the Qurʾān  Form and Structure of the Qurʾān  Fātiḥa  Immunity  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān  Religion  Tents and Tent Pegs  Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān  Tools for the Scholarly Study of the Qurʾān  Translations of the Qurʾān  [Al-]Ukhdūd Black Shriners see Ancient Egyptian Arabic…

B (Britain - Būṣrā)

(680 words)

Britain  Barēlwīs  Printing of the Qurʾān  Translations of the Qurʾān British India see India British Museum  Epigraphy  Material Culture and the Qurʾān Brockelmann, C.  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Foreign Vocabulary  Grammar and the Qurʾān  Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies Brockopp, J.  Captives  Concubines  Justice and Injustice  Prisoners  Servants  Slaves and Slavery Brodersen, A.  Reflection and Deliberation  Remembrance Brodeur, P.  Religion Bronze Age, Late  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Broomfeld, G.W.  Translations of the Qurʾān Brot…


(5 words)

 see creation; jesus Bibliography

Beast of Prey

(10 words)

 see animal life; lawful and unlawful Bibliography


(6 words)

 see chastisement and punishment Bibliography


(1,040 words)

Author(s): Gwynne, Rosalind Ward
A quality in persons or objects that appeals to the human senses and exalts the spirit. At least a dozen terms describe beauty in the Qurʾān, which is more often understood as a moral quality than an aesthetic one. It is a quality defined by its deep effects upon the beholder rather than by its own properties. Aesthetic terms (e.g. the various terms related to jamāl, iʿjāb, zīna, ḥilya, zukhruf, ṭayyib, alwān, qurrat ʿayn, bahīj) signal moral choices to be made or divine grace rendered (see consolation ), while moral terms (e.g. the various terms related to ḥusn, itqān, fitna, karīm) signal ei…


(2,953 words)

Author(s): Pietruschka, Ute
The Arabic term for “desert-dweller” ( badawī) is a derivation from the root b-d-w. Arabic lexicographers use the term badw/badawī as an antonym for “sedentary people” ( ḥāḍir), and the expression “people became Bedouin” ( badā l-qawm badwan) means that they went out to the desert (Ibn Sīda in Lisān al- ʿArab, xiv, 67). The cognate term bādiya refers to the sand-desert as opposed to the settled lands. The terms badw, badawī or the active participle bādī signify one who pursues a certain way of life, i.e. people of the desert or nomads as distinct from settled people. Bādī is used twice in th…


(5 words)

 see animal life Bibliography


(6 words)

 see magic, prohibition of Bibliography


(4 words)

 see mecca Bibliography


(6 words)

 see belief and unbelief Bibliography

Belief and Unbelief

(5,825 words)

Author(s): Adang, Camilla
The fundamental attitudes to the divine being, to the prophethood of Muḥammad and to the message of the Qurʾān. The paired terms “belief and unbelief” ( īmān, kufr) and their correlates “believer and unbeliever” ( muʾmin, kāfir) represent the central antithesis of the qurʾānic discourse. The root ʾ-m-n in the sense of “believing” and its most common, though by no means only, antonym, k-f-r (see gratitude and ingratitude ), are among the most frequently attested roots in the Qurʾān with close to 500 cases of each. They appear, either separately or in combination,…

Believers and Unbelievers

(8 words)

 see belief and unbelief Bibliography


(1,077 words)

Author(s): Johns, A.H.
The brother of Joseph (Yūsuf, see joseph ). Identified in the Bible as the son of Jacob (q.v.) and Rachel, Benjamin (Binyamīn) is not mentioned by name in q 12, the sūra which tells the story of Joseph. Of the eighteen dramatis personae of this sūra, only Joseph is named directly. Nevertheless the identity of Benjamin is clear and his presence in the story exemplifies the effec-¶ tiveness of the referential character of qurʾānic rhetoric. Benjamin is referred to on the following occasions: When the brothers complain “ Joseph and his brother [i.e. Benjamin] are dearer to our father …
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