Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(820 words)

Author(s): Denny, Frederick Mathewson
The organs of hearing. The Arabic term used in the Qurʾān for ear is udhun (pl. ādhān), occurring eighteen times in both Meccan and Medinan passages. The ear as anatomical object (see anatomy ) is presented, for example, in q 4:119, where Satan (see devil ) induces superstitious people to slit their cattle's ears; in q 2:19, where fools ( sufahāʾ, q 2:13), upon sighting menacing storm clouds “press their fingers in their ears (ādhān) by reason of the thunderclap, fearing death”; in q 18:11, where God sealed the ears (fa- ḍarabnā ʿalā ādhānihim) of the youths sleeping in the cave for a n…


(1,741 words)

Author(s): Toelle, Heidi
The land and land areas as distinguished from sea or air. In the Qurʾān, “earth” refers both to the terrestrial part of the universe, including the materials or elements of which it is composed, and, as will be seen below, the human body (see anatomy ). In both cases, the Arabic arḍ is used (over 450 occurrences), although other words with such a signification may appear. Primarily, arḍ denotes the earth in distinction from the heavenly sky (see heaven and sky ). This is the case in the many verses in which the paired couplet, “heaven and earth” (al-samāʾ wa-l-arḍ) or “heavens and earth” (al-samāw…


(4 words)

 see eschatology Bibliography

East and West

(6 words)

 see geography Bibliography


(8 words)

 see natural world and the qurʾān Bibliography


(2,882 words)

Author(s): Saeed, Abdullah
The science investigating the production and distribution of a society's material resources. In the qurʾānic context, economics is a function of the injunctions, rules and guidelines of Islamic law ( al- sharīʿa, see law and the qurʾān ) that govern the behavior of the individual and society in the acquisition and disposal of material resources and wealth (q.v.). Though works treating taxation (q.v.), the economic role of the state, markets (q.v.), prices and household management were written by Muslim scholars in the pre-modern period (e.g. Abū Yūsuf [d. 182/798], al-Kharāj; Ibn Ta…


(5 words)

 see paradise; garden Bibliography

Editions of the Qurʾān

(18 words)

 see printing of the qurʾān; codices of the qurʾān; readings of the qurʾān Bibliography


(6 words)

 see knowledge and learning Bibliography

E (Easter - Eli)

(564 words)

Easter  Ramaḍān Ebrahim, A.  Biology as the Creation and Stages of Life Eden [ʿAdn]  Angel  Dreams and Sleep  Earth  Eschatology  Ethics and the Qurʾān  Feminism and the Qurʾān  Garden  Good and Evil  Jinn  Last Judgment  Literature and the Qurʾān  Nature as Signs  Paradise  People of the Book  Smell  Spatial Relations  Springs and Fountains  Word of God Edessa  Christians and Christianity  Philosophy and the Qurʾān Edirne  Mosque EFA see Islam Effendi, S.  Bahāʾīs Egypt [Miṣr]  Age of Ignorance  Agriculture and Vegetation  Arabic Language  Archaeology and the Qurʾān  Arrogance  A…

E (Elias, J. - Ezra [ʿEzrā; ʿUzayr])

(621 words)

Elias, J.  Face of God  Job  John the Baptist  Lamp  Light  Throne of God  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān Eliash  Revision and Alteration Elijah Muhammad (d. 1975)  African Americans Elijah [Ilyās]  Alexander  Baal  Dhū l-Kifl  Elijah  Elisha  Foretelling in the Qurʾān  Gog and Magog  Good Deeds  Grammar and the Qurʾān  Idrīs  Invitation  Khaḍir/Khiḍr  Messenger  Narratives  Peace  Prophets and Prophethood  Sīra and the Qurʾān  Zechariah Elisha [al-Yasaʿ]  Dhū l-Kifl  Elijah  Elisha  Ezekiel  Ishmael  Job  Narratives  Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān Elizabeth  Aaron  Creation Elmalıl…


(855 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
Country in the north-east corner of Africa. Egypt or its capital, Miṣr, occurs by name five times in the Qurʾān, once in oblique form according to most readings ( qirāʾāt, see readings of the qurʾān ). The word Miṣr is mentioned in q 2:61, 10:87, 12:21, 12:99 and 43:51. Egypt also appears in the Qurʾān as the kingdom of Pharaohs ( q 43:51; see pharaoh ); the country where Joseph (q.v.; Yūsuf) became viceroy, like his patron ( al- ʿazīz, q 12:78, 88), after having been a slave and then coming to prominence through his patron's wife ( q 12); the arena of the struggle of Moses (q.v.; Mūsā) and Aaron (q.v.;…