Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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Table

(1,810 words)

Author(s): Radscheit, Matthias
A supported horizontal surface that facilitates actions like working, writing or eating. There is no precise equivalent in classical Arabic for this English term. Words like minḍada, sufra and simāṭ only signify “table” by derivation; their basic meanings are respectively “a device where mats, carpets or cushions are piled up,” “food provision for the traveler,” and “a cloth or coat upon which the dishes are put.” By contrast, several designations for “table” entered Arabic from neighboring, non-Semitic languages. These include mēz and khiwān from Persian, ṭarabēza from Greek, ṭāwu…

Tablet

(6 words)

 see book; preserved tablet Bibliography

Taboo

(4 words)

 see forbidden Bibliography

Tābūt

(4 words)

 see ark Bibliography

Ṭāgūt

(6 words)

 see idols and images Bibliography

Tale

(5 words)

 see narratives; joseph Bibliography

Talent

(504 words)

Author(s): Hermansen, Marcia
A gift, ability or propensity provided by God. There is no specific qurʾānic term for talent although meanings related to this concept may be associated with ideas such as degrees, ability, capacity and gifts (see gift and gift-giving; grace; blessing). In modern Arabic, terms derived from the root w-h-b, “gifts,” and ʿ-d-d, “preparation,” refer to talent, but these roots and their derivations are not employed in this sense in the Qurʾān. In addition, istiṭāʿa, “ability, capacity,” is an important theological concept in Islam (see theology and the qurʾān ), but it is usually discus…

Talisman

(11 words)

 see amulet; popular and talismanic uses of the qurʾān Bibliography

Talk

(5 words)

 see speech; gossip Bibliography

Ṭālūt

(4 words)

 see saul Bibliography

Ṭanṭāwī Jawharī

(4,353 words)

Author(s): Majid Daneshgar
Shaykh Ṭanṭāwī Jawharī (1862-1940) was an Egyptian exegete famous for having composed a scientific interpretation of the Qurʾān. His publications were considered controversial and provocative by Islamic scholars, including staff at al-Azhar University and other Muslim places of learning, in the early twentieth century. The printing and distribution of his Qurʾān commentary was banned throughout Arabia, and his strong belief in spiritualism also caused some of his works to be banned in the Dutch East Indies for a time (Goldschmidt, Biographical dictionary, 96). Although he wa…
Date: 2017-11-08

Tasnīm

(6 words)

 see springs and fountains Bibliography

(-ṭāʾ- - ṭ-l-ʿ)

(387 words)

-ṭāʾ-   ṭ-b-b    ṭibb    Amulets    Food and Drink    Geography    Medicine and the Qurʾān    Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān    ṭibb al-aʾimma    ṭibb al-nabawī   ṭ-b-q    ṭabaqāt    Companions of the Prophet    ṭibāq    Cosmology    Life    Planets and Stars   ṭ-b-ʿ    maṭbaʿa    Printing of the Qurʾān    ṭabīʿa, pl. ṭabāʾiʿ    Medicine and the Qurʾān    Trinity   ṭ-f-l    ṭifl, pl. aṭfāl    Children    Left Hand and Right Hand    Youth and Old Age    ṭufaylī    Humor   ṭ-gh-r    ṭughrāʾ    Basmala    ṭughrāʾī    Material Culture and the Qurʾān   ṭ-gh-w/ṭ-gh-y    ṭaghā    I…

(-ṭāʾ- - ṭ-l-ḥ - ṭāwula)

(483 words)

ṭ-l-ḥ    ṭalḥ    Agriculture and Vegetation    Nature as Signs    Tree(s)   ṭ-m-m    ṭāmma    Apocalypse    Last Judgment    Pit   ṭ-m-r    ṭumār    Arabic Script   ṭ-m-s    ṭams    Arabic Script   ṭ-m-th    ṭamatha    Houris   ṭ-r-f    aṭrāf    Time    muṭarraf    Language and Style of the Qurʾān    taṭarruf    Zealotry    ṭaraf    Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān    ṭirāf    Nomads   ṭ-r-q    ṭarq    Foretelling in the Qurʾān    ṭarīq, pl. ṭuruq    Path or Way    Pit    Reciters of the Qurʾān    Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān    ṭarīqa, pl. ṭarāʾiq, ṭuruq    Barēlwīs    Eschatology    Magi…

Tawrāt

(4 words)

 see torah Bibliography

Taxation

(4,840 words)

Author(s): Heck, Paul L.
Extraction of a part of communal wealth for its social redistribution and for its use in maintaining governing authority (q.v.), its various institutions, and public works. The Qurʾān offers no trace of the fiscal system first developed under ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb (r. 2-12/634-44), in substance a reformulation of Byzantine and Sasanian models (see Jeffery, For. vocab. and relevant ei 2 articles — e.g. Cahen, Djizya; Zysow, ¶ Zakāt; Cahen, Kharādj — for discussion of the foreign origins of taxation terminology in the Qurʾān; see also foreign vocabulary ). That fiscal system was a pro…

(-ṭāʾ- - ẓanna)

(289 words)

-ẓāʾ- ẓ-f-r ẓufur  Consecration of Animals ẓ-h-r aẓhar  Noon aẓhara  Noon  Time iẓhār  Nudity  Recitation of the Qurʾān ẓahara  Atonement  Bahāʾīs  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Cosmology ẓahr, pl. ẓuhūr  Ethics and the Qurʾān  Left Hand and Right Hand  Oaths  Polysemy in the Qurʾān  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān ẓahīra  Day, Times of  Noon  Prayer  Time ẓihār  Atonement  Fasting  Law and the Qurʾān  Marriage and Divorce  Medicine and the Qurʾān  Oaths  Sex and Sexuality ẓuhr  Afternoon  Cosmology  Day, Times of  Friday Prayer  Instruments  Noon  Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān  ṣalāt al-ẓuhr ẓāhara  Et…

Teaching

(3,253 words)

Author(s): Günther, Sebastian
The act of instructing; imparting knowledge and information. Most of the numerous teaching-related passages in the Qurʾān are dedicated to the sound instruction of the believers in the faith (q.v.) and to their spiritual growth as individuals and members of the community (see belief and unbelief; knowledge and learning; ignorance). These passages include instruction on the creed, worship and other aspects of religious life. Some passages in the Qurʾān, however, also provide detailed instruction on secular matters (human relations; political, social, and legal affairs, etc.; see e…

Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān

(15,573 words)

Author(s): Doorn-Harder, Nelly van
Since the earliest days of Islam, the Qurʾān has been considered the foundation of all knowledge and moral behavior. Originally, its study and transmission took place via lessons and sermons in the mosque from which the informal educational model of madrasa schools developed, as well as the master-student model, where students sought out teachers for their particular knowledge and studied with them for varying lengths of time. These two models formed a more or less uniform system that lasted for over a thousand years and actually stil…

Tears

(4 words)

 see weeping Bibliography

Technology

(11 words)

 see media and the qurʾān; computers and the qurʾān Bibliography

Teeth

(629 words)

Author(s): Stewart, Devin J.
Hard bony appendages found in the mouths of vertebrates that assist in the chewing of food, as well as in defense and the capturing of prey. The word for tooth ( sinn) occurs once in the Qurʾān, in a verse that refers to the biblical lex talionis (law of retaliation [q.v.]): “We prescribed for them [the Jews; see jews and judaism ] therein [in the Torah (q.v.)]: life (q.v.) for life, eye for eye (see eyes ), nose for nose, ear for ear (q.v.), tooth for tooth, and for injuries like retaliation. If someone forgoes (retaliation) out of charity, it shall be an expiation for…

Temperature

(6 words)

 see hot and cold Bibliography

Temple

(9 words)

 see sacred precincts; house, domestic and divine Bibliography

Temporary Marriage

(1,480 words)

Author(s): Haeri, Shahla
Financial contract between a man and an unmarried woman permitting sexual relations for a fixed amount of time upon compensation of the woman. Although the Arabic term for this concept ( mutʿa) does not occur in the Qurʾān, the tenth verbal form of the root m-t-ʿ is employed at q 4:24, likely with reference to this practice as a pre-Islamic Arabian tradition (despite the explanations of many exegetes; cf. e.g. the traditions preserved in Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, ad loc., which identify al- istimtāʿ with “ nikāḥ” or “ tazwīj”; cf. also Heffening, Mutʿa). This practice developed into a compl…

Temporary marriage [Supplement 2017]

(1,510 words)

Author(s): Shahla Haeri
A temporary marriage is a contract between a man and an unmarried woman permitting sexual relations for a fixed amount of time upon compensation of the woman. Although the Arabic term for this concept (mutʿa) does not occur in the Qurʾān, the tenth verbal form of the root m-t-ʿ is employed in Q 4:24, probably with reference to this practice as a pre-Islamic Arabian tradition (some exegetes; cf. e.g. the traditions preserved in Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, ad loc., identify al-istimtāʿ with nikāḥ or tazwīj; cf. also Heffening, Mutʿa). This practice developed into a complex Shīʿī religious …
Date: 2017-10-23

Temptation

(5 words)

 see whisper; devil Bibliography

Ten Commandments

(5 words)

 see commandment Bibliography

Tents and Tent Pegs

(1,690 words)

Author(s): Pietruschka, Ute
Portable shelters for nomadic peoples and the means to affix them in the ground. Arabic lexicographical works and dictionaries provide us with a considerable variety of terms designating a tent (see tools for the study of the qurʾān ). Most of this vocabulary goes back to Arab philologists of the eighth/ninth centuries c.e. like al-Aṣmaʿī (d. 213/828), Abū ʿUbayda (d. 209/ 824-5) and Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī (d. 215/830) to whom later lexicographers owe most of their knowledge about pre-Islamic Arabs, their culture and language (see arabs; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān; arabic lan…

Tents and Tent Pegs [Supplement 2016]

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Ute Pietruschka
Tents are portable shelters for nomadic peoples and tent pegs are the objects used to fix them to the ground. Arabic dictionaries and lexicographical works provide us with a considerable variety of terms for a tent (see tools for the study of the Qurʾān), and most of this vocabulary goes back to the Arab philologists of the second-third/eighth-ninth centuries. These include al-Aṣmaʿī (d. 213/828), Abū ʿUbayda (d. 209/ 824-5), and Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī (d. 215/830), to whom later lexicographers owe much of their knowledge about the pre-Islamic Ar…
Date: 2016-11-17

Terror

(4 words)

 see fear Bibliography

Testifying

(6 words)

 see witnessing and testifying Bibliography

Textile

(8 words)

 see material culture and the qurʾān Bibliography

Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān

(9,912 words)

Author(s): Bellamy, James A.
Introduction Anyone who writes on textual criticism should begin with definitions. So let it be ¶ said from the outset that textual criticism has nothing to do with the criticism of music, art or literature. In simplest terms, textual criticism is the correction of errors in texts. Classical scholars are, however, a bit more sophisticated. A. E. Housman (Application, 67) defines textual criticism as the “science of discovering error in texts and the art of removing it.” But he goes on to say that it is not an exact science, so perhaps we might be just…

Textual History of the Qurʾān

(28 words)

 see unity of the text of the qurʾān; muṣḥaf; textual criticism of the qurʾān; collection of the qurʾān; codices of the qurʾān Bibliography
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