Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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Technology

(11 words)

 see media and the qurʾān; computers and the qurʾān Bibliography

Teeth

(629 words)

Author(s): Stewart, Devin J.
Hard bony appendages found in the mouths of vertebrates that assist in the chewing of food, as well as in defense and the capturing of prey. The word for tooth ( sinn) occurs once in the Qurʾān, in a verse that refers to the biblical lex talionis (law of retaliation [q.v.]): “We prescribed for them [the Jews; see jews and judaism ] therein [in the Torah (q.v.)]: life (q.v.) for life, eye for eye (see eyes ), nose for nose, ear for ear (q.v.), tooth for tooth, and for injuries like retaliation. If someone forgoes (retaliation) out of charity, it shall be an expiation for…

Temperature

(6 words)

 see hot and cold Bibliography

Temple

(9 words)

 see sacred precincts; house, domestic and divine Bibliography

Temporary Marriage

(1,480 words)

Author(s): Haeri, Shahla
Financial contract between a man and an unmarried woman permitting sexual relations for a fixed amount of time upon compensation of the woman. Although the Arabic term for this concept ( mutʿa) does not occur in the Qurʾān, the tenth verbal form of the root m-t-ʿ is employed at q 4:24, likely with reference to this practice as a pre-Islamic Arabian tradition (despite the explanations of many exegetes; cf. e.g. the traditions preserved in Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, ad loc., which identify al- istimtāʿ with “ nikāḥ” or “ tazwīj”; cf. also Heffening, Mutʿa). This practice developed into a compl…

Temporary marriage [Supplement 2017]

(1,510 words)

Author(s): Shahla Haeri
A temporary marriage is a contract between a man and an unmarried woman permitting sexual relations for a fixed amount of time upon compensation of the woman. Although the Arabic term for this concept (mutʿa) does not occur in the Qurʾān, the tenth verbal form of the root m-t-ʿ is employed in Q 4:24, probably with reference to this practice as a pre-Islamic Arabian tradition (some exegetes; cf. e.g. the traditions preserved in Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, ad loc., identify al-istimtāʿ with nikāḥ or tazwīj; cf. also Heffening, Mutʿa). This practice developed into a complex Shīʿī religious …
Date: 2017-10-23

Temptation

(5 words)

 see whisper; devil Bibliography

Ten Commandments

(5 words)

 see commandment Bibliography

Tents and Tent Pegs

(1,690 words)

Author(s): Pietruschka, Ute
Portable shelters for nomadic peoples and the means to affix them in the ground. Arabic lexicographical works and dictionaries provide us with a considerable variety of terms designating a tent (see tools for the study of the qurʾān ). Most of this vocabulary goes back to Arab philologists of the eighth/ninth centuries c.e. like al-Aṣmaʿī (d. 213/828), Abū ʿUbayda (d. 209/ 824-5) and Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī (d. 215/830) to whom later lexicographers owe most of their knowledge about pre-Islamic Arabs, their culture and language (see arabs; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān; arabic lan…

Tents and Tent Pegs [Supplement 2016]

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Ute Pietruschka
Tents are portable shelters for nomadic peoples and tent pegs are the objects used to fix them to the ground. Arabic dictionaries and lexicographical works provide us with a considerable variety of terms for a tent (see tools for the study of the Qurʾān), and most of this vocabulary goes back to the Arab philologists of the second-third/eighth-ninth centuries. These include al-Aṣmaʿī (d. 213/828), Abū ʿUbayda (d. 209/ 824-5), and Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī (d. 215/830), to whom later lexicographers owe much of their knowledge about the pre-Islamic Ar…
Date: 2016-11-17

Terror

(4 words)

 see fear Bibliography

Testifying

(6 words)

 see witnessing and testifying Bibliography

Textile

(8 words)

 see material culture and the qurʾān Bibliography

Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān

(9,912 words)

Author(s): Bellamy, James A.
Introduction Anyone who writes on textual criticism should begin with definitions. So let it be ¶ said from the outset that textual criticism has nothing to do with the criticism of music, art or literature. In simplest terms, textual criticism is the correction of errors in texts. Classical scholars are, however, a bit more sophisticated. A. E. Housman (Application, 67) defines textual criticism as the “science of discovering error in texts and the art of removing it.” But he goes on to say that it is not an exact science, so perhaps we might be just…

Textual History of the Qurʾān

(28 words)

 see unity of the text of the qurʾān; muṣḥaf; textual criticism of the qurʾān; collection of the qurʾān; codices of the qurʾān Bibliography
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