Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

Subscriptions: see brill.com


(6 words)

 see expeditions and battles Bibliography


(1,030 words)

Author(s): Robin, Christian Julien
Substantive (or proper name) found in the qurʾānic expression aṣḥāb al-ukhdūd ( q 85:4): [They] were destroyed, the men of the furnace (aṣḥāb al-ukhdūd), a fire (q.v.) abundantly fed, while they were sitting by it, and they were witnesses of what they did to believers (see belief and unbelief ), and they ill-treated them for no other reason than that they believed in God ( q 85:4-9). Islamic tradition is almost unanimous in identifying these aṣḥāb al-ukhdūd with those involved in the persecution at Najrān (q.v.; a large oasis in southern Saudi Arabia, on the border with Yemen [q.v.]), in No…


(4 words)

 see scholars Bibliography


(8 words)

 see caliph; companions of the prophet Bibliography


(10 words)

 see community and society in the qurʾān; religion Bibliography

Umm Ḥabība

(8 words)

 see wives of the prophet Bibliography


(2,709 words)

Author(s): Günther, Sebastian
A qurʾānic epithet for the prophet Muḥammad that acquired significantly different interpretations in the course of Islamic history. Traditionally, Muslims understand ummī as “illiterate” and as unequivocally identifying Muḥammad as “the illiterate Prophet” (al-nabī l-ummī) — a view that has come to constitute an article of orthodox faith and spirituality in Islam (see illiteracy ). Recent research, however, recovering some of the earliest exegetical glossing, has suggested that ummī in the Qurʾān signifies the ethnic origin (being an Arab, Arabian) and the origi…

Umm Salama

(8 words)

 see wives of the prophet Bibliography


(4 words)

 see pilgrimage Bibliography


(10 words)

 see belief and unbelief; polytheism and atheism; faith Bibliography


(973 words)

Author(s): Schub, Michael B.
Questioning the truth or existence of something. In the Qurʾān, this is a quality often attributed to those peoples, past and present, who do not believe or trust the messengers (see messenger ) or signs (q.v.) of God (see lie; belief and unbelief; opposition to muḥammad; trust and patience). And, like its first auditors, Islamic tradition (and certainly non-Muslims) has grappled with how to understand — and interpret — the word of God (q.v.). According to the tradition, Islam began with Muḥammad's uncertainty and panic ( fa-akhadhatnī rajfa; al-nashiʾ ʿan al-ruʿb; Suyūṭī, Itqān, i, 93…


(5 words)

 see family; kinship Bibliography


(4 words)

 see contamination Bibliography


(4 words)

 see baptism Bibliography

Unity of God

(12 words)

 see god and his attributes; witness to faith Bibliography

Unity of the Text of the Qurʾān

(695 words)

Author(s): Mir, Mustansir
As a subject of study, the unity of the qurʾānic text assumes special importance because the Qurʾān does not always seem to deal with its themes in what most readers would call a systematic manner (see form and structure of the qurʾān ). Western scholars of Islam have often spoken of the “disconnectedness” of the Qurʾān (see pre-1800 preoccupations of qurʾānic studies; post-enlightenment ¶ academic study of the qurʾān ). Historically, most Muslim exegetes have not raised the issue at all (see exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval ). Of those who have, some have offered the …


(8 words)

 see cosmology; creation; nature as signs Bibliography