Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(4 words)

 see lactation Bibliography


(9 words)

 see instruments; fighting; war; hunting and fishing Bibliography


(5 words)

 see sleep; sabbath Bibliography


(672 words)

Author(s): Waines, David
In general terms, the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, involving the variables of heat, cold, moisture, wind and pressure, and referring both to beneficial and destructive consequences. In the Qurʾān there are a number of words covering many of these aspects, some phenomena having more than one term. In the vast majority of contexts, the agency of God is explicit (e.g. q 30:48). ¶ Rain, for example, is expressed in several ways. The most frequent is the mention of God's “sending down water from the sky” thereby giving life (q.v.) to or restoring it on earth (q.v.; see also …


(6 words)

 see marriage and divorce Bibliography


(878 words)

Author(s): Branca, Paolo
Shedding of tears as a result of a heightened emotional state. Weeping out of piety (q.v.) or the fear (q.v.) of God is considered an expression of great devotion and several ḥadīths relate that this is what the Companions of the Prophet (q.v.) used to do when they heard sermons and preaching (see teaching and preaching the qurʾān ). According to a ḥadīth reported by Abū Hurayra (d. ca. 58/678; see ḥadīth and the qurʾān ), among “the seven people to whom God gives his shade on the day” of resurrection (q.v.), there is “a man who remembers God in solitude and his eyes become tearful” (Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, …

Weights and Measures

(2,404 words)

Author(s): Dähne, Stephan
Means for making quantitative evaluations. Information about weights and measures in the Qurʾān must be derived from symbolic discourse (see symbolic imagery; similes; metaphor). This is true even for very concrete weights and measures and is reflected in the exegetical literature (see exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and ¶ medieval ), which contains often divergent information and explanations about weights and measures in the Qurʾān. What follows is a closer examination of the qurʾānic (1) measures of length; (2) measures of weight; …


(6 words)

 see springs and fountains Bibliography


(997 words)

Author(s): Giladi, Avner
Breastfeeding — voluntary or for payment — of an infant by a woman other than its own mother, or by the latter, following divorce (see marriage and divorce ). Murḍiʿa (pl. marāḍiʿ) in the Qurʾān denotes in general “suckling female” ( q 22:2, Bell; “nursing mother,” Pickthall) and, more specifically, a “foster-mother” ( q 28:12, Arberry) or a “wet-nurse.” In q 65:6 the root r-ḍ-ʿ in the fourth form describes the act of wet-nursing, and in q 2:233 the tenth form of this root denotes “seeking, or demanding, a wet-¶ nurse” (see Lane, 1097). The term ẓiʾr, “one that inclines to, or affects, the…
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