Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Johanna Pink, Universität Freiburg.

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

Subscriptions: see brill.com


(6 words)

 see idols and images Bibliography


(4,615 words)

Author(s): Kinberg, Leah
A concept in qurʾānic exegesis which bears upon the controversial issue of the amount of interpretive license which may be taken in commenting on God's word. The root sh-b-h is attested several times in the Qurʾān. In reference to the Qurʾān or its verses, the active participle mutashābih (or mutashābihāt) appears twice with the sense of “ambiguous” or “similar.” q 3:7 states that the Qurʾān consists partly of muḥkam verses and partly of mutashābih: “It is he who sent down upon you the book (q.v.), wherein are verses clear ( āyāt muḥkamāt baḥr, pl. biḥār, 97a ) that are the essence of the book ( um…


(1,865 words)

Author(s): O'Connor, Kathleen Malone
Ornaments worn as charms against evil and sickness. Muslims have used amulets (ruqā, sing. ruqya) most often to cure spiritual or psychological conditions, including madness, spirit possession and the evil eye. The Qurʾān may be recited in the form of a spell ( duʿāʾ) or worn in written form (ṭilasm) on the person or placed in the home. Among the Indonesian Gayo, spells, called doa, include the use of qurʾānic verses in Arabic for healing and other purposes accompanied by supplementary words in Gayo and visualizations (J.R. Bowen, Muslims through discourse, 77-105; J. Flueckiger, Vis…


(16 words)

 see language and style of the qurʾān; exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval Bibliography


(3,639 words)

Author(s): Huda, Qamar-ul
References to the structure of the human body in the Qurʾān. The Qurʾān mentions body parts many times, but these are spread throughout the text and particular terms do not always convey the same meaning in different contexts. In some sections of the Qurʾān human anatomy is treated as a functional element, but most qurʾānic references to the human body are employed in metaphors (see metaphor ) aimed at encouraging the pursuit of an ethical and pious life. Anatomy and body parts in the Qurʾān are cited in conjunction with the faith of believers to ensure that t…


(6 words)

 see kinship and family Bibliography


(5,969 words)

Author(s): Webb, Gisela
Heavenly messenger. Like its Hebrew (malʾak) and Greek (angelos) counterparts, the Arabic term malak (pl. malāʾika) means “messenger.” The Qurʾān uses the term about ninety times, with some angels designated by name, Gabriel (Jibrīl, see gabriel ) and Michael (Mikāʾīl, q 2:97-8; see michael ) and others only by function, e.g. reciters, glorifiers, dividers, guardians, ascenders, warners, recorders. Reflection about the role of angels — as described in the Qurʾān and elaborated in ḥadīth and commentary — constitutes a fundamental aspect of…


(628 words)

Author(s): Bashir, Shahzad
A manifestation of God's opprobrium mentioned numerous times in the Qurʾān in the context of his censure of unbelievers, detractors of Muḥammad and those guilty of moral and material crimes and general wrongdoing. It is furthermore an ¶ emotion attributed to believers, Muḥammad's enemies and prophets, for instance Moses (q.v.) and Jonah (q.v.). God's anger, paired occasionally with his curse (q.v.; q 4:93; 5:60; 24:9; 48:6), symbolizes his negative opinion of certain human behavior. Among past nations, the pre-Islamic prophet Hūd (q.v.) informed the people of ʿĀd (q.v.) of God'…

Animal Life

(5,587 words)

Author(s): Eisenstein, Herbert
The references to fauna in the Qurʾān. There are more than two hundred passages in the Qurʾān dealing with animals and six sūras bear the names of animals as titles ( q 2 The Cow [Sūrat al-Baqara]; q 6 The Herding Animals [Sūrat al-Anʿām]; q 16 The Bee [Sūrat al-Naḥl]; q 27 The Ant [Sūrat al-Naml]; q 29 The Spider [Sūrat al-ʿAnkabūt]; q 105 The Elephant ¶ [Sūrat al-Fīl]). Nevertheless, animal life is not a predominant theme in the Qurʾān. Animal species The common Arabic word for “animal” ḥayawān (lit. life) occurs only once in the Qurʾān ( q 29:64) and actually does not refer to an animal, …


(919 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew
The ritual practice of touching objects or persons with scented oils. A practice common to various cultures of the ancient Near East, anointing is typically done on festive occasions and avoided during periods of fasting and mourning, although it is used in burials. It has also been a ritual act of the dedication of an individual to the deity. In the ancient Near East, kingship especially was conferred formally through anointing rather than through a crown or other fabricated symbols. The practice of anointing was …


(6 words)

 see emigrants and helpers Bibliography


(5 words)

 see animal life Bibliography


(4 words)

 see creation Bibliography


(8 words)

 see social sciences and the qurʾān Bibliography

Anthropology of the Qurʾān

(7,882 words)

Author(s): Farstad, Mona Helen
Anthropology is a term that is used to refer to the study of several aspects of human life. A Qurʾānic anthropology is not found as one coherent and systematically organised system of thought, located in one sūra, but can be constructed from relevant terms and expressions found throughout the text, as elements in different, yet interdependent, modes of discourse, such as homiletics, polemics, and narrative. Concepts, expressions, and notions relevant for a Qurʾānic anthropology are closely interconnected with Qurʾānic theology. Topics such as the characteristics and condit…
Date: 2018-07-16


(2,969 words)

Author(s): Martin, Richard C.
Ascribing human attributes to God. Tashbīh, the term most commonly rendered in ¶ English as “anthropomorphism,” does not appear in the Qurʾān with that meaning. The second form of the root sh-b-h appears only once, in the passive voice, in reference to Jesus' death: “They did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but it appeared to [Jesus' followers that they had]” ( q 4:157). The sixth form occurs nine times, predominantly denoting “likeness,” as in q 2:70: “To us all cows look alike.” The form tashābaha also connotes ascribing associates to God ( q 13:16). It also appears in q 3:7, which dis…


(3,106 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Neal
In the Islamic tradition, an evil figure who will lead people astray (q.v.) in the last days and whose advent will be one of the signs of the approaching “hour.” The Antichrist (al-Dajjāl, al-Masīḥ al-Dajjāl) is not mentioned in the Qurʾān, but he figures in numerous ḥadīth that are cited by the classical commentators. Although many Jews expected an eschatological conflict between God's agents and the forces of evil (see eschatology ), the belief that those forces would be concentrated in a specific individual called the Antichrist seems first to have arisen in Chr…

Anwār al-tanzīl wa-asrār al-ta’wīl

(88 words)

Author(s): Bobzin
Click here to open EPK-69 Author Baydāwī, ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Umar, d. 1286? | Fleischer, Heinrich Leberecht, 1801-1888. Imprint Lipsiae : Sumptibus F.C.G. Vogelii, 1846-1848. Physical description 2 v. ; 26 cm. Language Arabic Reference Chauvin, V.C. Bib. des ouvrages arabes, vol. X, 268. Subject - Titles Koran -- Commentaries. Original held by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek -- Munich, Germany Shelfmark BSB 4 A.or.419 Prof. dr. Hartmut Bobzin
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