Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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Byzantines

(3,116 words)

Author(s): Bonner, Michael | El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria
The inhabitants of the Eastern Roman Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople. The Byzantines ( al-Rūm, lit. “the Romans”) are named in the Qurʾān only in ¶ Sūrat al-Rūm, q 30:1-5: “The Byzantines have been defeated (ghulibati l-Rūm) in a nearby land, but after their defeat they will prevail (sa-yaghlibūna) within a few years…. On that day the believers will rejoice.” An alternate reading going back to several early authorities, including Ibn ʿUmar (d. 73/693), reverses the voice of the verbs: “The Byzantines have prevailed (ghalabati l-Rūm)… [but afterwards] will be defeated (sa…