Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(4 words)

 see pilgrimage Bibliography

I (IAIN - Ibn Ikhshīdh, Abū Bakr Aḥmad (d. 326/938))

(621 words)

IAIN see Islam Iathrippa  Geography Iberian Peninsula  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies Iblīs  Angel  Arabic Script  Cosmology  Creation  Debate and Disputation  Devil  Faith  God and his Attributes  Good and Evil  Hell and Hellfire  Iblīs  Insolence and Obstinacy  Intention  Jinn  Myths and Legends in the Qurʾān  Narratives  Nature as Signs  Noah  Prayer  Pride  Races  South Asian Literatures and the Qurʾān  Speech  Spiritual Beings  Theology and the Qurʾān  Tree(s)  Troops  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān Ibn (al-)ʿAbbās, ʿAbdallāh (d. 68-9/686-7)  Agriculture and Veg…

I (Ibn Ḥajar al-Haytamī (d. 974/1567) - al-Qurʾān Printers, Bombay)

(1,032 words)

Ibn Ḥajar al-Haytamī (d. 974/1567)  Sin, Major and Minor Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī (d. 852/1449)  Foreign Vocabulary  Occasions of Revelation  Satanic Verses  Sin, Major and Minor  Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies Ibn Ḥanbal, Aḥmad (d. 241/855)  Anthropomorphism  Companions of the Prophet  Court  Createdness of the Qurʾān  Creeds  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Hell and Hellfire  Honey  Inimitability  Intercession  Manual Labor  Muʿtazila  Names of the Prophet  Noah  Philosophy and the Qurʾān  Preserved Tablet  Raqīm  Recitation of the Qurʾān  Scr…

I (Ibn Isḥāq, Muḥammad (d. 150/767) - Ibn Qilāba)

(725 words)

Ibn Isḥāq, Muḥammad (d. 150/767)  Abraha  Abyssinia  Cave  Children of Israel  Circumcision  Conquest  Consecration of Animals  Consultation  Emigrants and Helpers  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Expeditions and Battles  Good and Evil  Idolatry and Idolaters  Informants  Inimitability  Jews and Judaism  Korah  Literacy  Money  Muḥammad  Noah  Opposition to Muḥammad  Prophets and Prophethood  Qaynuqāʿ (Banū)  Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān  Rhetoric and the Qurʾān  Satanic Verses  Smoke  Springs and Fountains  Sīra and the Qurʾān  Taxation  Tubbaʿ  …

I (Ibn al-Kalbī, Hishām (d. 206/821) - Ibn Ḥabīb, ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 238/852-3))

(696 words)

Ibn al-Kalbī, Hishām (d. 206/821)  Archaeology and the Qurʾān  Idolatry and Idolaters  People of the House  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic  Springs and Fountains  Tubbaʿ Ibn al-Khallāl  Muʿtazila Ibn al-Masarra al-Jabalī (d. 319/931)  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān Ibn al-Mubārak, ʿAbdallāh (d. 181/797)  Heresy  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān Ibn al-Mundhir al-Mundhirī al-Nīshābūrī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Ibrahīm (d. 318/930)  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Persian Literature and the Qu…

I (Ibn Qudāma, Muwaffaq al-Dīn (d. 620/1223) - Ibn al-Jaṣṣās)

(723 words)

Ibn Qudāma, Muwaffaq al-Dīn (d. 620/1223)  Creeds  Philosophy and the Qurʾān Ibn Qutayba, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh b. Muslim al-Dīnawarī (d. 276/889)  Barrier  Barzakh  Camel  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Food and Drink  Foreign Vocabulary  Gospel  Inimitability  Polysemy in the Qurʾān  Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān  Readings of the Qurʾān  Scripture and the Qurʾān  Torah  Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies  Work  Ḥafṣa Ibn Rajab (d. 795/1395)  Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies Ibn Rushd (Averroës; d. 595/1198)  Creation  Eter…

I (Indians - Isaiah [Shaʿyā])

(705 words)

Indians  Crucifixion  Persian Literature and the Qurʾān Indo-European (languages)  Morning Indonesia  Fātiḥa   Islamic State University Indonesia   Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān   MUT (Majelis Ulama Indonesia)   Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān  Manuscripts of the Qurʾān  Material Culture and the Qurʾān  Media and the Qurʾān  Mosque  Printing of the Qurʾān  Recitation of the Qurʾān  Southeast Asian Qurʾānic Literature  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān  Women and the Qurʾān   YKF (Indonesian womenʿs group)   Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān Indonesian (language)  Sou…

I (Isāf - Iṣlāḥī, Amīn Aḥsan)

(232 words)

Isāf  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic  Ṣafā and Marwa Isḥāq Ibrāhīm al-Warrāq see al-Warrāq, Isḥāq Ibrāhīm (d. 286/899-900) Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm (fl. third/ninth century)  Debate and Disputation Isḥāq b. Rāhawayh (d. 298/853)  Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies Italian (language)  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies Italy  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies  Printing of the Qurʾān Ittiḥādiyya  Creeds IUE see Islam IUR see Islam Ivanov, W.  Basmala Izalazallāt  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic Iznīq see Nicea ʿIzrāʾīl (angel of death)  An…

I (Ismāʿīl - Istanbul)

(586 words)

Ismāʿīl  Dhū l-Kifl  Prayer Ismāʿīl b. Abī Khālid (d. 146/763)  Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān Ismāʿīl b. Abī ʿUbayd Allāh Muʿāwiya b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-Ashʿarī (d. first half third/ninth cent.)  Language and Style of the Qurʾān Ismāʿīl b. Aḥmad (r. 279-95/892-907)  Creeds Ismāʿīl b. Hibat Allāh (d. 1184/1770)  Shīʿism and the Qurʾān Ismāʿīl b. Muḥammad al-Tamīmī see al-Tamīmī, Ismāʿīl b. Muḥammad Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Suddī (d. 127-8/745)  Expeditions and Battles  Satanic Verses  Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād al-Jawharī (d. ca. 392/1002)  Material Culture and the Qurʾān Ismā…


(4 words)

 see inimitability Bibliography


(807 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
An infinitive of the Arabic root ʾ-l-f which has been explained in various ways by Muslim commentators of the Qurʾān as well as by modern scholars. It occurs in one qurʾānic chapter ( q 106:1-2), where it is annexed to the name Quraysh (q.v.), and is associated with the “journey of the winter and the summer” (see caravan ). Most of the exegetical explanations are based on the view that ilāf Quraysh describes the manner in which the Meccan people of Quraysh conducted the winter and the summer journey. They revolve around the basic range of meanings of the root ʾ-l-f, which are “to resort habitu…


(585 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Irene
The state of having been unlawfully conceived. Although references to adultery (see adultery and fornication ) with clear legal bearings are frequent in the Qurʾān (see law and the qurʾān ), and the ability to determine the paternity of a child is a major social concern of the Qurʾān (see community and society in the qurʾān; family; kinship; inheritance) — as exemplified by the parameters for a woman's “waiting period” for remarriage after divorce and widowhood (see marriage and divorce; widow) — there is no unequivocal reference to illegitimacy in the sense of children (q.…


(5,374 words)

Author(s): Günther, Sebastian
The inability to read or write any language. This inability puts a person at a disadvantage and is regarded as a defect in societies where culture transmission and human communication occurs through writing (Meagher, Illiteracy, 1766b). In considering the situation in Arabia at the time of the prophet Muḥammad (d. 632 c.e.), however, quite different categories have to be applied: the common cultural and historical property of the tribes (see tribes and clans ) — their knowledge, crystallized in Arabic poetry, genealogies, and stories of tribal battles — was retained …


(593 words)

Author(s): Leemhuis, Frederik
A term occurring twice in the Qurʾān ( q 83:19 and 18) that Western scholars have considered to be derived from the Hebrew ʿelyōn, “the highest” (Paret, ʿIlliyyūn). Many ¶ medieval and post-medieval Muslim commentators understand the term to connote the inscribed book where the deeds of the pious are listed (see record of human actions; heavenly book; preserved tablet). All the early commentaries, however, appear to interpret ʿilliyyūn as the name of a place high in heaven (see heaven and sky ). Suggestions about the specifics of where or what it is include: paradise (q.v.), …

Illness and Health

(719 words)

Author(s): Zayd, Nasr Hamid Abu
States of physical ailment and soundness. Maraḍ is sometimes used in the Qurʾān to convey the literal meaning of physical illness, while at other times, it is used in a ¶ metaphorical sense. For the literal meaning, the verbal form mariḍa occurs only once with the first person pronoun — the speaker is the prophet Abraham (q.v.) — as its grammatical subject ( q 26:80). This verse attracted much attention from qurʾānic commentators because its apparent meaning contradicts the dominant doctrine of God's omnipotence (see power and impotence ). Although the Qurʾān teaches that everythin…


(6 words)

 see ornamentation and illumination Bibliography


(4 words)

 see elijah Bibliography


(6 words)

 see idols and images Bibliography


(1,176 words)

Author(s): Yusuf, Imtiyaz
A term (pl. aʾimma) used in the Qurʾān to mean the following: symbol, leader, model, ideal example, revelation, guide, archetype, and foremost. It appears in the Qurʾān seven times in the singular and five times in the plural form. The term imām has been interpreted and applied in various ways in Islamic history up to contemporary times and has been significant in shaping the politico-religious dimension of the Muslim Weltanschauung. The Qurʾān's symbolic reference to the appointment of Abraham (q.v.) as an imām (leader) of humanity in q 2:124 counsels that religious submission to…


(7 words)

 see faith; belief and unbelief Bibliography
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