Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(612 words)

Author(s): Cobb, Paul M.
The name of a place or possibly a tribe. It is connected with the people of ʿād (q.v.) and thus, by extension, with the story of the prophet Hūd (q.v.). Iram is in fact mentioned only once in the Qurʾān, in q 89:6-7: “Do you not see how your lord dealt with ʿād, [and with] Iram of the columns” (a-lam tara kayfa faʿala rabbuka bi-ʿĀdin Irama dhāti l- ʿimādi). Some classical exegetes (see exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval ) interpret Iram as being in apposition to — and thus synonymous with — the people of ʿĀd. For them, Iram designates an ancient tribe, and a subdivision of ʿĀ…


(769 words)

Author(s): El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria
A region extending over the southern lands of Mesopotamia including the fertile lands between the Tigris and the Euphrates ¶ rivers. Although the word Iraq does not occur in the Qurʾān (see geography ), a number of prophets (see prophets and prophethood ) mentioned therein are believed to have come from Iraq (i.e. Abraham, q.v.), leading some recent Western scholarship to posit Iraq as the cradle of the Qurʾān (see Wansbrough, qs, 49-50; and id., Sectarian milieu for a more fully developed version of the theory; see also south arabia, religion in pre-islamic ). In post-qurʾānic times, t…


(806 words)

Author(s): Firestone, Reuven
One of the sons of Abraham (q.v.). Isaac (Isḥāq), specifically named a prophet ( q 19:49; 37:112; see prophets and prophethood ), is mentioned by name seventeen times in sixteen qurʾānic verses. In half of these, he is included in what appears to be a litany of remembrances of ancient prophets. Such remembrances are a common qurʾānic motif in which the prophethood and message of Muḥammad are set within a context of ancient and familiar prophets and divine messages, usually but not always paralleling the scriptural traditions of Judaism and Christianity (see scripture and the qurʾān ). The …


(691 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew
Son of Amos and a prophet who was sent to Israel. Isaiah (in Arabic, Shaʿyā or Ashaʿyāʾ) is not mentioned by name in the Qurʾān, although exegetical works (e.g. Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, xv, 22-3; Māwardī, Nukat, iii, 229) mention him in connection with q 17:4, “We decreed for the Children of Israel (q.v.) in the book (q.v.): ‘You shall do corruption (q.v.) in the earth twice, and you shall ascend exceeding high.’” Isaiah is well known in the “stories of the prophets” literature ( qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, see prophets and prophethood ), especially for his predictions of the coming of Jesus (q.v.) and Muḥamma…


(838 words)

Author(s): Firestone, Reuven
Pre-Islamic prophet, named in the Bible as the son of Abraham (q.v.) and Hagar and the eponymous father of the Ishmaelites (a confederacy of Arab tribes; see tribes and clans ). Ishmael (Ismāʿīl) is mentioned twelve times in as many verses of the Qurʾān. In most of these, he is listed among other prophets as part of a litany of remembrances in which the pre-Islamic prophets are praised for their resolute steadfastness (see trust and patience ) and obedience (q.v.) to God, often in the face of adversity (see trial ). The subtext of these litanies is Muḥammad's position as authentic prophet (nabī)…


(3,808 words)

Author(s): Arkoun, M.
The infinitive of the fourth form of the Arabic triliteral root s-l-m meaning “to submit,” “to surrender,” it also designates the monotheistic faith (q.v.) and practice observed by the followers of Muḥammad and exhorted by the Qurʾān. Preliminary considerations To restrict the notion of islām to that which emerges for the first time within the qurʾānic pronouncements, it is necessary to be clear about the problems that this limitation implies. It is misleading to gather and analyse all the verses that contain the forms islām or muslim(ūn) in an effort to arrive at an “objective” …


(4 words)

 see impeccability Bibliography


(7 words)

 see shīʿism and the qurʾān Bibliography


(6 words)

 see ascension; aqṣā mosque Bibliography


(554 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Ancestor of the people of Israel ( Isrāʾīl), whose name appears most frequently in the Qurʾān within the title “ Children of Israel” (q.v.; Banū Isrāʾīl). Only in two places does it occur separately ( q 3:93; 19:58). The commentators identify Israel with Jacob (q.v.; Yaʿqūb), the son of Isaac (q.v.; Isḥāq). q 3:93, which deals with Jewish dietary restrictions (see jews and judaism ), makes allusion to a specific event in Israel's life. It ¶ is stated here that all food was lawful (see lawful and unlawful ) to the Children of Israel save what Israel forbade for himself before the Torah (q.v.) was…

Ithnā ʿAsharīs

(8 words)

 see shīʿism and the qurʾān Bibliography