Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(4 words)

 see gabriel Bibliography


(594 words)

Author(s): Abdu El Fadl, Khaled M.
A word of uncertain etymology, the noun jibt occurs only once in the Qurʾān, but is also used in poetry and prophetic traditions from the early Islamic centuries (see poetry and poets; ḥadīth and the ¶ qurʾān ). Generally, jibt has three possible meanings: it is used to describe any false object of belief or worship (see idols and images ), an individual who exceeds all bounds of propriety (see moderation ) or a state of oppression (q.v.) and injustice ( Lisān al-ʿArab, ii, 164; Tāj al-ʿarūs, iii, 32; see justice and injustice ). It is mentioned in q 4:51 in the context of condemning those People of…


(4,710 words)

Author(s): Landau-Tasseron, Ella
Struggle, or striving, but often understood both within the Muslim tradition and beyond it as warfare against infidels (see fighting; war; belief and unbelief). The term jihād derives from the root j-h-d, denoting effort, exhaustion, exertion, strain. Derivatives of this root occur in forty-one qurʾānic verses. Five of these contain the phrase jahd aymānihim, meaning “[to swear] the strongest oath,” which is irrelevant to the present discussion (see oaths ), and not all the remaining verses refer to warfare. ¶ Since the concept of jihād is related to warfare, discussions of the…


(4,311 words)

Author(s): Chabbi, Jacqueline
A category of created beings believed to possess powers for evil and good. Although their existence is never doubted, the jinn (Eng. “genie”) are presented in the Qurʾān as figures whose effective role has been considerably curtailed in comparison to that accorded to them by various forms of pre-Islamic religion. Unlike their rivals, the rabb and the rabba, the “lords” and “ladies,” supernatural protectors and “allies” ( awliyāʾ) of the tribes ¶ (see tribes and clans ) that God, in the fullness of his lordship, succeeds in making disappear ( q 53:23, “They are but names which you hav…


(6 words)

 see poll tax; taxation Bibliography

J (Jabal Murrān - Jeddah)

(725 words)

Jabal Murrān see Murrān Jabal Nawdh see Nawdh Jabal Qāsyūn see Qāsyūn Jabal Ramm see Ramm Jabal Says see Usays Jabal Thawr see Thawr Jabal Usays (Sēs) see Usays Jabal al-Lawdh see al-Lawdh, Jabal al-Jabal al-Muqaddas  Cain and Abel Jabal al-Raḥma see Mount of Mercy Jabr (slave of the Banū l-Ḥaḍramī)  Informants Jabr (slave of the Banū ʿAbd al-Dār)  Informants Jabriyya  Ambiguous Jackson, S.  Cheating  Debt  Prophets and Prophethood Jacob Golius see Golius, Jacob (d. 1667) Jacob [Yaʿqūb]  Abraham  Adam and Eve  Air and Wind  Alexander  Apparition  Benjamin  Book  Children of Israel  Clo…

J (Jeffery, A. - Jethro [Shuʿayb])

(599 words)

Jeffery, A.  Barzakh  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Codices of the Qurʾān  Conquest  Contemporary Critical Practices and the Qurʾān  Cups and Vessels  Foreign Vocabulary  Instruments  Lord  Pit  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān  Raqīm  Revelation and Inspiration  Revision and Alteration  Ritual Purity  Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān  The Collection of the Qurʾān  Tools for the Scholarly Study of the Qurʾān Jehenna  World Jehoshaphat  Last Judgment Jehovahʿs Witnesses  Hypocrites and Hypocrisy Jehuda ha-Levi (d. 1141)  Torah Jenssen, H.  Arabic Language Jerba …

J (Jew(s) [Yahūd] - Johns, A.H.)

(676 words)

Jew(s) [Yahūd]  Abraham  Abrogation  Agriculture and Vegetation  Anatomy  Anger  Animal Life  Anthropomorphism  Antichrist  Apologetics  Apparition   Arabian   Opposition to Muḥammad   Arabic speaking   House, Domestic and Divine  Ararat  Arbitration  Archaeology and the Qurʾān  Baptism  Belief and Unbelief  Blessing  Bloodshed  Book  Cain and Abel  Chastisement and Punishment  Chastity  Children of Israel  Christians and Christianity  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Circumcision  Cleanliness and Ablution  Commandments  Community and Society in the Qurʾān  Consolatio…

J (-jīm- - j-h-n-m)

(589 words)

-jīm-   j-b-b    jubb    Water   j-b-h    jibāh    Anatomy   j-b-l    jabal, pl. jibāl    Kaʿba    Pilgrimage    jabal makka   j-b-r    ijbār    Tolerance and Coercion    jabarūt    Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān    jabbār, pl. jabābira    Arrogance    God and his Attributes    History and the Qurʾān    Idrīs    Insolence and Obstinacy    Names of the Prophet    Politics and the Qurʾān    Pride    jabbārīn    War    jabr    Politics and the Qurʾān    jabriyya    Ambiguous    Philosophy and the Qurʾān   j-b-s    jibsun    Jibt   j-b-t    jibt    Foreign Vocabulary    Idolatry and Idolaters    …

J (-jīm- - j-h-r - j-n-n)

(617 words)

j-h-r    jahara    Prayer    Whisper    jahr    Prayer    Whisper   j-h-ḍ    ijhāḍ    Abortion   j-l-b-b    jilbāb, pl. jalābīb    Clothing    Community and Society in the Qurʾān    Veil    Wives of the Prophet    Women and the Qurʾān   j-l-d    jalada    Fire    jald    Flogging    Sex and Sexuality    jild, pl. julūd    Bedouin    Hides and Fleece    Sheets    Tents and Tent Pegs   j-l-l    jalal    Glory    jalla    Material Culture and the Qurʾān    jalāl    God and his Attributes    Theology and the Qurʾān    jalīl    Arabic Script    Glory    majalla    Sheets    tajallī    Ṣūfi…

J (-jīm- - j-n-s - jazūr)

(583 words)

j-n-s    jins    Gender    Inimitability   j-n-y    janā    Date Palm    jināya    Infanticide   j-n-z    janāʾiz    Burial    Ritual and the Qurʾān   j-n-ḥ    junāḥ    Ethics and the Qurʾān    Inquisition    Kings and Rulers    Lawful and Unlawful    Sin, Major and Minor    The Collection of the Qurʾān   j-r-b    jarīb    Measurement    mujarrabāt    Amulets    Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān    Ritual and the Qurʾān    tajriba    Agriculture and Vegetation   j-r-d    arād    Animal Life    jarrada    Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān    tajarrud    Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān   j-r-m    ajr…

J (Johnson, N. - Judah [Yahūdhā])

(521 words)

Johnson, N.  Aqṣā Mosque Johnston, D.  Virtue Jomier, J.  Destiny  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān Jonah/Jonas [Yūnus or Dhū l-Nūn, son of Mattā]  Anger  Animal Life  Babylon  Book  Darkness  Elisha  Gambling  Generations  Geography  Glorification of God  Informants  Inimitability  Ishmael  Job  John the Baptist  Jonah  Korah  Literature and the Qurʾān  Messenger  Miracles  Muḥammad  Mysterious Letters  Narratives  Prayer  Prophets and Prophethood  Punishment Stories  Repentance and Penance  Revelation and Inspiration  Salvation  Ships  Tree(s)  Tri…

J (Judaism - Jārūdites)

(422 words)

Judaism  Abraham  Abrogation  Agriculture and Vegetation  Angel  Anthropomorphism  Apocalypse  Apologetics  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Baptism  Belief and Unbelief  Calf of Gold  Carrion  Children  Christians and Christianity  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Community and Society in the Qurʾān  Creation  Expeditions and Battles  Faith  Fasting  Foreign Vocabulary  Form and Structure of the Qurʾān  Fosterage  Freedom and Predestination  Geography  History and the Qurʾān  Isaac  Islam  Jerusalem  Jews and Judaism  Justice and Injustice  Lactation  Language and S…