Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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Job

(929 words)

Author(s): Johns, A.H.
One of the prophetic figures preceding Muḥammad common to the Jewish, Christian and Islamic traditions (see prophets and prophethood ). Job (Ayyūb) is mentioned in only four pericopes: q 6:83-7 and 4:163 set him in the company of the prophets while q 38:41-2 and q 21:83-4 allude to his distinctive vocation and charisma. In q 6:83-90, together with Abraham (q.v.), Isaac (q.v.), Jacob (q.v.), Noah (q.v.), David (q.v.), Solomon (q.v.), Joseph (q.v.), Moses (q.v.) and Aaron (q.v.), Zechariah (q.v.), John (see john the baptist ), Jesus (q.v.), Elias (see elijah ), Ishmael (q.v.), Elisha (q.v…

Job [Supplement 2017]

(942 words)

Author(s): Anthony H. Johns
Job (Ayyūb) is one of the prophetic figures preceding Muḥammad, and is common to the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions (see Prophets and prophethood). Job is mentioned in only four pericopes: Q 6:83-7 and 4:163 set him in the company of the prophets, while Q 38:41-2 and Q 21:83-4 allude to his distinctive vocation and charisma.In Q 6:83-90, together with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Noah, David, Solomon, Joseph, Moses and Aaron, Zechariah, John (see John the Baptist), Jesus, Elias (see Elijah), Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah, and Lot, he is included among those God has guided, chosen…
Date: 2017-08-31

John the Baptist

(909 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew
The New Testament herald of Jesus (q.v.) who also figures in the Qurʾān (see scripture and the qurʾān ). John the Baptist, son of Zechariah (q.v.), called in Arabic Yaḥyā b. Zakariyyā, is mentioned by name five times in the Qurʾān. In q 3:39, John is described as noble, chaste and a prophet who will “witness the truth (q.v.) of a word from God,” that is, Jesus (see prophets and prophethood; word of god; witnessing and testifying). q 6:85 speaks of John along with Zechariah, Jesus and Elias (see elijah ) as being of the “righteous.” q 19:7 announces the forthcoming birth of John to Zechariah (see …

Jonah

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Busse, Heribert
One of the prophets mentioned in both the Bible and the Qurʾān (see prophets and prophethood ). Jonah (Yūnus b. Mittai, Heb. Jōnā ben Amittai) is named ¶ five times in the Qurʾān: q 4:163 lists him together with Abraham (q.v.), Jesus (q.v.) and other prophets who have received revelations (see revelation and inspiration ); as rightly-guided he is cited together with Zechariah (q.v.), Jesus and other prophets in q 6:85-86; his people ( qawm Yūnus) were, according to q 10:98, the only ones who escaped divine punishment because they had repented (see punishment stories; repentance and penance)…

Joseph

(1,588 words)

Author(s): Goldman, S.
The son of Jacob (q.v.; Yaʿqūb), whose story is told in Sūrat Yūsuf (“Joseph”), the twelfth sūra of the Qurʾān. This sūra is devoted to the story of Joseph (Yūsuf) and, as such, it is the Qurʾān's longest sustained narrative of one character's life. The sūra's ¶ 111 verses ( āyāt) relate events in Joseph's life ranging from his youthful conversations with his father Jacob and his brothers (see benjamin; brother and brotherhood), conversations that lead to Joseph's exile and imprisonment, to the resolution of the family's conflicts through divine guidance and inspiration (see rev…

Journey

(1,084 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Matthew S.
Voyage, usually of some length, from one place to another. Terms to be translated as “journey, trip, travel,” occur throughout the Qurʾān. Perhaps the most obvious, and most frequent, are derivatives of s-f-r, s-y-r, and ḍ-r-b (fī). Of this set, eight ( q 2:184, 185, 283; 4:43; 5:6 [s-f-r]; 4:101; 5:106; 73:20 [ḍ-r-b]) concern legal prescriptions brought into play by the act of travel (see law and the qurʾān ). For example, q 2:184-5, “[fast; see fasting ] for a given number of ¶ days, but if any among you is ill (see illness and health ) or on a journey ( ʿalā safarin), [fast] on an equal number…

Joy and Misery

(3,148 words)

Author(s): Adams, Charles J.
The state of happiness and that of wretchedness, respectively. References to joy and misery are frequent in the Qurʾān, are expressed either directly or by implication, and pertain both to this world and the next (see eschatology ). Pleasures of this world are neither condemned nor forbidden (q.v.; see also asceticism; abstinence; wealth; poverty and the poor; lawful and unlawful), but believers are to be mindful about the source of these pleasures (see gratitude and ingratitude ). Current wretchedness is not a sure sign of divine favor or disfavor (see blessing; grace; curse; reward…

Judgment

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Lalani, Arzina R.
Opinion or decision; pronouncement of such. Judgment is an integral part of the whole qurʾānic ethos and is intrinsically linked to creation (q.v.) itself, which is not just a random act but teleological and divinely ordained (see cosmology; fate; freedom and predestination). God, who is the sole source of creation and sustenance (q.v.; see also blessing; food and drink), is also the lord (q.v.) of the day of judgment (see last judgment ). Consequently, the concept of God's final “judgment,” which eventually became one of the tenets of faith (q.v.; aqāʾid, see also creeds ), is found thr…

Jūdī

(679 words)

Author(s): Brinner, William M.
Mount (Jabal) Jūdī, also written Djūdī (modern Turkish, Cudi), the name of a mountain mass and its highest point in SE Turkey, near the borders of Iraq (q.v.) and Syria (q.v.). Mount Jūdī is attested once in the Qurʾān, at q 11:44, as al-Jūdī, the site where Noah's (q.v.) ark (q.v.) rested on dry land after the flood (see myths and legends in the qurʾān; scripture and the qurʾān; geography). There has been considerable disagreement about the actual site to which this story refers. Largely due to western Christian misinterpretation of the Hebrew “hārê Arārāṭ,” literally “ mountains of Ararat” …

Jug

(6 words)

 see cups and vessels Bibliography

Jugular Vein

(7 words)

 see artery and vein Bibliography

Justice and Injustice

(2,919 words)

Author(s): Brockopp, Jonathan E.
Equitable action according to God's will; action that transgresses God's bounds. One of the key dichotomies in the Qurʾān, it separates divine from human action, moral from immoral behavior (see ethics and the qurʾān ). The Qurʾān uses several different words and metaphors to convey this moral balance. ʿAdl and qisṭ can be used to speak of justice as equitable action but justice can also be defined as correct or truthful action, in which case ṣidq or ḥaqq may be used. Metaphors (see metaphor ) such as the balance ( mīzān, see weights and measures; instruments), inheritance (q.v.) shares ( naṣī…