Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(874 words)

Author(s): Webb, Gisela
An angelic being, Michael (Ar. Mīkāl; also Mīkaʾīl; Mīkāʾil; Mīkaʾil) is mentioned by name only once in the Qurʾān (Mīkāl, q 2:98) in a verse affirming belief in God's angels (including Gabriel; see angel;¶ gabriel ) and apostles (see messenger ) as a requirement of faith (q.v.) for the community of believers ( muʾminīn, see belief and unbelief; community and society in the qurʾān). The role of Michael, however, is elaborated in ḥadīth and qurʾānic interpretation (see ḥadīth and the qurʾān; exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval). This angel, whose ontological status seems…


(870 words)

Author(s): Firestone, Reuven
The name of a geographic locale and of a people mentioned in the Qurʾān. In post-qurʾānic Islamic tradition and in the Hebrew Bible, Midian (Ar. Madyan) is also the name of one of Abraham's (q.v.) sons through Keturah (cf. Gen 25:2), the eponymous ancestor of the Midianites. The ¶ origin of the name is unknown. Mendenhall (Studies) notes that the Hebrew midyān (from the root mady-) is non-Semitic and may be a cognate to the later term, māday, from which Medes is derived. In the Septuagint, the word is found as Madian or Madiam. The biblical Midianites were linguistically and culturally an …


(11 words)

 see qibla; art and architecture and the qurʾān; mosque Bibliography


(761 words)

Author(s): Waines, David
Fluid secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. The two verses in which the Arabic word for milk, laban, occurs are q 16:66 and 47:15. They have distinct contextual references, though they share the sense of belonging to the signs (q.v.) of God's bounty (see blessing ) toward humankind and of being a reward for ¶ believers' acknowledgment of the divine economy (see belief and unbelief; reward and punishment). The first verse refers to terrestrial existence. “In cattle (see animal life ) too you have a worthy lesson. We give you to drink …


(4,702 words)

Author(s): Gril, Denis
Supernatural intervention in the life of human beings. When defined as such, miracles are present in the Qurʾān in a threefold sense: in sacred history, in connection with Muḥammad himself and in relation to revelation. Although an almost indispensable attribute of prophecy, Muḥammad was not thought to have been granted any miracles in the traditional sense as they were not, ipso facto, sufficient to convince unbelievers (see proof; belief and unbelief). In the Qurʾān, the concept of miracle takes on a cosmological and eschatological dimension (see cosmology; eschatology), and the…


(4 words)

 see corruption Bibliography


(6 words)

 see joy and misery Bibliography


(9 words)

 see freedom and predestination; astray; error; guidance Bibliography


(6 words)

 see prophets and prophethood Bibliography


(4 words)

 see covenant Bibliography

M (Macdonald, D. - Marar Trading Company, Baghdad)

(616 words)

Macdonald, D.  Idolatry and Idolaters Macoraba  Geography Madelung, W.  Createdness of the Qurʾān  Emigration  Inimitability Madhabite  Yemen Madhḥij  Divination  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic Madigan, D.A.  Book  Criterion  Preserved Tablet  Revelation and Inspiration Madyan see Midian Madyanites see Midianites Madāʾ  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Madāʾin  Jerusalem Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ  Antichrist  Thamūd  Ḥijr al-Madāʾinī  Conquest Maghrib  Calligraphy  Khārijīs  Manuscripts of the Qurʾān  Mosque  Numismatics  Ornamentation and Illumination  Prayer Formulas  …

M (Mānkdīm (d. 425/1034) - Mūsā b. ʿUqba al-Asadī (d. 141/758))

(202 words)

Mānkdīm (d. 425/1034)  Createdness of the Qurʾān al-Manṣūr (r. 136-58/754-75)  Aqṣā Mosque  Politics and the Qurʾān  Sīra and the Qurʾān Mārib/Maʾrib (capital of Sabaʾ)  Archaeology and the Qurʾān  Bedouin   Dam of   Agriculture and Vegetation   Archaeology and the Qurʾān   Geography   Narratives   Nature as Signs   Pre-Islamic Arabia and the Qurʾān   Yemen  Pre-Islamic Arabia and the Qurʾān  Sheba  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic  Yemen Māriya al-Qibṭiyya (d. 16/638) see Mary the Copt Mārūt  Babylon  Hārūt and Mārūt  Magic  Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān  Sp…

M (Marburg - Maymūna bt. al-Ḥarīth)

(810 words)

Marburg  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies Marcotte, R.  Night of Power Marcus Aurelius  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Margoliouth, D.  Circumcision  Inimitability  Satanic Verses  Translations of the Qurʾān Mari  Left Hand and Right Hand Mark (evangelist)  Antichrist  Gospel Mark of Toledo (Canon Marcus of Toledo)  Translations of the Qurʾān Marlow, L.  Friends and Friendship  Kings and Rulers  Scholar Maronite(s)  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies Marracci, Ludovico (d. 1700)  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies  Printing of the Qurʾān  Transl…

M (Maysara (servant of Khadīja) - Mecca [Makka])

(713 words)

Maysara (servant of Khadīja)  Informants  Khadīja Maysara b. ʿAbd Rabbihi (fl. 150/767)  Angel  Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān Mayse (of Muʿwiya)  Syria Mazdaism  Spiritual Beings Mazlum, J.  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān Maʾjūj see Magog Maʿadd  Sīra and the Qurʾān al-Maʿarrī, Abū l-ʿAlāʾ (d. 449/1057)  Angel  Hell and Hellfire  Literature and the Qurʾān  Parody of the Qurʾān  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān Maʿbad al-Juhanī (d. after 83/703)  Philosophy and the Qurʾān al-Mābiyāt  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Maʿdīkarib Yaʿfur  Yemen Maʿmar b. Rāshid (d. 153-4/770)  …

M (Meccan(s) - Medina [(al-)Madīna(t al-Nabī)])

(635 words)

Meccan(s)  Air and Wind  Animal Life  Arrogance  Badr  Basmala  Bedouin  Belief and Unbelief  Boast  Camel  Captives  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Consolation  Covenant  Death and the Dead  Dialects   Emigrants [muhājirūn]   Brother and Brotherhood   Emigrants and Helpers   Inheritance   Jihād   Literature and the Qurʾān   Medina   Musaylima   Parties and Factions   Prayer   Pre-Islamic Arabia and the Qurʾān   Reward and Punishment   Slaves and Slavery   Sīra and the Qurʾān   Taxation   Time  Emigrants and Helpers  Emigration  Epigraphy  Eschatology  Exegesis of the …

M (Medinan(s) - Mingana, A)

(599 words)

Medinan(s)  Brother and Brotherhood  Children of Israel  Community and Society in the Qurʾān  Emigrants and Helpers  Emigration  Food and Drink  Grammar and the Qurʾān   Helpers [anflār]   Bedouin   Brother and Brotherhood   Circumcision   Consultation   Emigrants and Helpers   Emigration   Inheritance   Jihād   Literature and the Qurʾān   Medina   Musaylima   Occasions of Revelation   Parties and Factions   Prayer   Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān   Reward and Punishment   Sīra and the Qurʾān   Time   Ḥunayn  Medina  Musaylima  The Collection of the Qurʾān  Theft…

M (-mīm- - m-l-ʾ)

(483 words)

-mīm-   m-d-d    amadda    Readings of the Qurʾān    madad    Intercession    madd    Recitation of the Qurʾān    Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān    madda    Day, Times of    Earth    Time    Word of God    madda    Recitation of the Qurʾān    midād    Instruments    Literacy    Nature as Signs    Orality and Writing in Arabia    Writing and Writing Materials    mudda    Time   m-d-n    madīna, pl. madāʾin/mudun   m-d-ḥ    madīḥ, pl. madāʾiḥ    Everyday Life, Qurʾān In   m-h-d    mahd    Earth    Furniture and Furnishings    mihād    Earth    Furniture and Furnishings    Pit   m-h-l    muhl    F…

M (-mīm- - m-l-ḥ - m-t-ʿ)

(414 words)

m-l-ḥ    milḥ    Cosmology    Fire    Food and Drink    Springs and Fountains    milḥ ujāj    Cosmology    Fire    Springs and Fountains   m-l-ṣ    imlāṣ    Abortion   m-n-j    manj    Fire   m-n-n    mann    Food and Drink    manūn    Geography    minna    Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān   m-n-y    istimnāʾ    Sex and Sexuality    manāh [manāt]    Grammar and the Qurʾān    manāyā    Geography    tamannā    Satanic Verses    umniyya    Satanic Verses   m-n-ʿ    manaʿa    Cosmology    māniʿ    Protection   m-q-l    muql    People of the Thicket   m-r-d    mumarrad    Art and Architecture and t…

M (-mīm- - m-th-l - m-ṭ-r)

(399 words)

m-th-l    laysa ka-mithlihi shayʾ(un)    Literary Structures of the Qurʾān    Simile    mathal, pl. amthāl    Air and Wind    Ambiguous    Debate and Disputation    History and the Qurʾān    Narratives    Pairs and Pairing    Parable    Signs    Simile    Springs and Fountains    Symbolic Imagery    Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies    mathalu l-jannati    Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān    mathula, pl. mathulāt    Dialects    Reward and Punishment    Sunna    mithl    Literary Structures of the Qurʾān    Simile    mithāl    Philosophy and the Qurʾān    mumaththilūn…

M (Ministry of Religious Endowments [wizārat al-awqāf] - Morrison, R.)

(316 words)

Ministry of Religious Endowments [wizārat al-awqāf]  Everyday Life, Qurʾān In Minā  Cain and Abel  Cave  Consecration of Animals  Geography  Jerusalem  Kaʿba  Mecca  Pilgrimage  Sacred Precincts Miquel, A.  Byzantines  Grammar and the Qurʾān Mir, M.  Ashes  Astray  Belief and Unbelief  Bread  Dialogues  Form and Structure of the Qurʾān  Glorification of God  Glory  Grace  Humor  Literature and the Qurʾān  Names of the Qurʾān  Polytheism and Atheism  Theophany  Tools for the Scholarly Study of the Qurʾān  Unity of the Text of the Qurʾān Miriam see Maryam (sister of Moses) Mirzā Ab…
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