Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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O (Occultation - OʿShaughnessy, T.)

(235 words)

Occultation   Major   Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval   Shīʿism and the Qurʾān   Minor   Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval Og [ʿŪj b. ʿAnaq]  Generations  Noah Ölceytü see Öljeytü Old  Antichrist  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Bedouin  Jesus  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Myths and Legends in the Qurʾān  Polemic and Polemical Language Old Testament see Testament; Bible Öljeytü (r. 703-16/1304-16)  Calligraphy  Epigraphy  Material Culture and the Qurʾān  Numismatics Oman [ʿUmān]  Apostasy  Arabic Language  Date Palm  Imām  Khārijīs  Last J…

Opponent

(4 words)

 see enemies Bibliography

Opposition to Muḥammad

(2,691 words)

Author(s): Schöller, Marco
Resistance to the political and religious authority (q.v.) of Muḥammad. The Qurʾān is very much a document that shows the struggle of a new faith (q.v.) coming into existence, and the career of Muḥammad is very much the story of a man who eventually defeated all odds when shaping the first community of believers (see community and society in the qurʾān ). Additionally, the qurʾānic concept of prophecy (see prophets and prophethood ) is profoundly marked by the experience of opposition (see q 25:31; 40:5). The fact of being opposed both theologically and politically (see politics and the q…

Oppressed on Earth, The

(1,415 words)

Author(s): Zaman, Muhammad Qasim
Those with no political or other power; the downtrodden. Several verses of the Qurʾān refer to those who are “weak” ( ḍaʿīf, pl. ḍuʿafāʾ, and other derivatives of ḍ-ʿ-f; q 2:266, 282; 4:9; 9:91; 11:91; 14:21; 40:47) or those who are “deemed or made weak” ( mustaḍʿaf, pl. mustaḍʿafūn, as well as the tenth verbal form of ḍ-ʿ-f; q 4:75, 97-8; ¶ 7:75; 8:26; 28:4-5; 34:31-3). R.B. Serjeant (The ḍaʿīf, 33) has argued that the qurʾānic term ḍaʿīf does not simply mean “weak,” but rather usually refers to “persons without the capacity to fight for and defend themselves” (see fighting; oppression). By e…

Oppression

(740 words)

Author(s): Abu Zayd, N.
Unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power. There is no single word in the Qurʾān that perfectly translates the term “oppression.” An array of words, such as baghy (attested seven times), qahr (ten times), ṭughyān (nine times; cf. Izutsu, Structure, 140-2), ʿudwān (seven times; cf. Izutsu, Structure, 161-4), istiḍʿāf (five times) and the most frequently attested, ẓulm (ca. twenty times; cf. Izutsu, Structure, 152-61), all share an essential semantic aspect of this concept: i.e. exceeding the appropriate limits of behavior in dealing with others, while v…

Orality

(2,026 words)

Author(s): Graham, William A.
The quality of spoken, as opposed to written, communication. The Arabic Qurʾān emerged against the backdrop of a long history of oral poetic composition and recitation (see poetry and poets; orality and writing in arabia). It is a composite text consisting of oral recitations born in ¶ an oral culture of great refinement and long tradition. It is hard to over-emphasize the importance of oral poetry among the northern Arab tribal nomads (q.v.) of the pre-Islamic world (see pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān; arabs; bedouin). Their major art form was the spoken word of poetry, and…

Orality and Writing in Arabia

(3,684 words)

Author(s): Jones, Alan
Transmission of knowledge through the spoken and written word. In pre-Islamic Arabia, culture was largely transmitted orally, with writing being used for practical matters of daily life (i.e. trade; see selling and buying ) — although there was an awareness of Jewish and Christian scriptures (see scripture and the qurʾān; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān). Apart from a couple of inscriptions and some defectively written graffiti, no primary sources exist for pre-Islamic Arabic writing (see epigraphy of the qurʾān; archaeology and the qurʾān). Oral sources, by their very natu…

Orality [Supplement 2016]

(2,226 words)

Author(s): William A. Graham
Orality is the quality of spoken, as opposed to written, communication. The Arabic Qurʾān emerged against the backdrop of a long history of oral poetic composition and recitation (see poetry and poets; orality and writing in Arabia). It is a composite text consisting of oral recitations that was born in an oral culture of great refinement. It is hard to over-emphasise the importance of oral poetry among the northern Arab tribal nomads of the pre-Islamic world (see pre-Islamic Arabia and the Qurʾān; Arabs; bedouin). Their major art form was the spoken word of poetry, and in pa…
Date: 2016-11-17

Oral Transmission

(18 words)

 see readings of the qurʾān; orality; orality and writing in arabia; collection of the qurʾān Bibliography

Original Sin

(7 words)

 see fall of man Bibliography

Ornamentation and Illumination

(6,083 words)

Author(s): Blair, Sheila S. | Bloom, Jonathan M.
From early times written copies of the qurʾānic text were embellished with various kinds of ornament that served to divide the text into manageable units, enhance readability, and enliven the visual qualities of the page and the book. Like the Torah of the Jews but unlike the Bible of the Christians, the Qurʾān was never illustrated with pictures, but rather embellished only with non-figural, nonrepresentational decoration. In contrast to the study of western manuscripts, where the term illumination encompasses both figural and non-figural decoration, scholars of Islamic…

Orphans

(785 words)

Author(s): Giladi, Avner
Children (q.v.) who have lost their parents, generally to death. Yatīm (pl. yatāmā), a term designating a fatherless minor child (al-Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Mufradāt; Lisān al-ʿArab, s.v.), appears throughout the Qurʾān more than twenty times. Early verses from the first Meccan period (see chronology and the qurʾān ), celebrating God's providence towards the orphan Muḥammad ( q 93:6), warn against oppressing orphans as such ( q 93:9) and identify those who turn away the orphan as unbelievers ( q 107:2; see belief and unbelief ). Later verses from the same period rebuke the unbelie…

Orthography

(2,628 words)

Author(s): Rezvan, Efim
Lit. “correct writing,” it has a three-fold nuance: a) the art of writing words with the proper letters, according to standard usage; b) correct spelling, or, alternatively, mode of spelling; c) grammar treating of letters and spelling. The history of the formation of a “standard” qurʾānic orthography is the focus of this article; the particularities of qurʾānic spelling, letters and grammar are treated in greater detail elsewhere (see arabic script; arabic language; grammar and the qurʾān; language and style of the qurʾān; inimitability; mysterious letters). The orthography of…

Ostentation

(6 words)

 see age of ignorance Bibliography