Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Johanna Pink, Universität Freiburg.

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(7 words)

 see jews and judaism; scholar Bibliography


(942 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Persons or animals or plants connected by common descent. This concept emerges in the Qurʾān mainly in relationship with the glory (q.v.) of God who in his might was able to create a multitude of species upon earth (see creation; power and impotence). Thus in q 36:36: “Glory be to him who created pairs of all things, of what the earth grows, and of their own kind and of what they do not know” (see glorification of god ). The phrase “of what they do not know” is taken to refer to species unknown to humans. Similarly, in q 20:53 God is praised (see praise ) for producing from the earth many species o…


(7 words)

 see god and his attributes Bibliography


(7 words)

 see war; expeditions and battles Bibliography


(14 words)

 see weather; water; sustenance; agriculture and vegetation; nature as signs; grace; blessing Bibliography

R (al-Rabadha - Reclam, P.)

(907 words)

al-Rabadha  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Rabbat, N.  City Rabin, Ch.  Dialects  Grammar and the Qurʾān  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān Rabīʿ I  Emigration Rachel  Belief and Unbelief  Benjamin Rada  Material Culture and the Qurʾān Radscheit, M.  Provocation  Responsibility  Springs and Fountains  Table  Witnessing and Testifying  Word of God Radtke, B.  Saint  Wisdom al-Rāghī al-Tūnisī (d. 715/1315)  Translations of the Qurʾān al-Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Abū l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn (d. 502/1108)  Brother and Brotherhood  Conquest  For…


(6,065 words)

Author(s): Neuwirth, Angelika
The ninth month of the Islamic calendar, during which Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset and commemorate the revelation of the Qurʾān to Muḥammad. To understand Ramaḍān as a crucial scriptural and ritual issue in a major world religion, it is useful to look at its emergence and liturgical enactments from a comparative perspective (see scripture and the qurʾān; ritual and the qurʾān). It is obvious that, in phenomenological terms, three historically interrelated festivals — Pesach ( Passover), Easter and Ramaḍān — display a close relation to acts of violence (q.v.) in tha…


(8 words)

 see a people of the heights Bibliography


(6 words)

 see ranks and orders Bibliography

Ranks and Orders

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Virani, Nargis
Arrangement of heavenly or earthly beings in military or other formation. Ṣaff, plural ṣufūf, literally “rank, row or line, company of men standing in a rank, row or line” (Lane, 1693, col. 3), is a term used in several different contexts and with various significations. The purely literal meaning, a very early understanding, referred to “straight lines and rows” of Muslim believers when offering obligatory prayers (see prayer; ritual and the qurʾān; community and society in the qurʾān). Over time, the additional meaning of “ranks and orders” acquired a certain sense of …


(4 words)

 see captives Bibliography


(928 words)

Author(s): Tottoli, Roberto
Name mentioned at the beginning of the qurʾānic version of the story of the Seven Sleepers (see men of the cave ), where the Qurʾān states: “Or do you think the Men of the Cave and al-Raqīm were among our signs (q.v.) a wonder?” ( q 18:9). The isolated mention in this passage with no other specification or occurrences of the term prompted an abundance of exegetical explanations and interpretations. One tradition mentioned in some commentaries attests that al-Raqīm was one of the four words in the Qurʾān that Ibn ʿAbbās (d. ca. 68/688; see companions of the prophet; ḥadīth and the qurʾān) could n…


(900 words)

Author(s): Tottoli, Roberto
Term mentioned twice in the Qurʾān in connection with the expression aṣḥāb al-rass, “the people of al-Rass”: “We have prepared for the evildoers a painful chastisement. And ʿĀd (q.v.), Thamūd (q.v.) and the people of al-Rass, and between that, ¶ many generations” ( q 25:37-8); “The people of Noah (q.v.) and the people of al- Rass, and Thamūd and Pharaoh (q.v.), and ʿĀd and the brothers of Lot (q.v.) cried lies before them…” ( q 50:12). Although there are no other elements that help clarify who the people of al-Rass were, the fact that they are mentioned alongside othe…


(7 words)

 see messenger; prophets and prophethood Bibliography

Readers of the Qurʾān

(18 words)

 see reciters of the qurʾān; readings of the qurʾān; recitation of the qurʾān Bibliography

Readings of the Qurʾān

(6,725 words)

Author(s): Leemhuis, Frederik
A term generally used to denote the qirāʾāt, the different ways of reciting the Qurʾān. Variant readings are an important aspect of Qurʾān recitation (see recitation of the qurʾān; reciters of the qurʾān), ¶ but qirāʾāt refer to more than that. Other elements — such as differences concerning length of syllables, when to assimilate consonants to following ones, and where to pause or insert verse endings — form an integral part of the different qirāʾāt systems. Reports about different ways of reciting or reading the Qurʾān were transmitted from the beginning of Islam. Tra…

Read, Reading

(8 words)

 see recitation of the qurʾān Bibliography


(2,380 words)

Author(s): El Fadl, Khaled Abou
Opposition to authority. Whether the Qurʾān has anything to say on the subject of rebellion and political violence (q.v.; see also politics and the qurʾān ) is not an issue that can easily be resolved by reference to the text of the Qurʾān alone. Although t…

Recitation of the Qurʾān

(11,654 words)

Author(s): Gade, Anna M.
The vocal rendition of the Qurʾān. Tilāwat al-Qurʾān is to render the Arabic Qurʾān in voice. It is a branch of the sciences of the “readings” ( qirāʾāt) of the Qurʾān (see readings of the qurʾān ). In the Qurʾān, the term tilāwa (which appears in both nominal and verbal forms) often refers to the signs (q.v.) of God that are “rehearsed” therein, i.e. the narration of accounts of previous messengers and communities in sacred history (see narratives; messenger; generations; punishment stories), as well as the actual act of the recitation of the Qurʾān itself. In general, when the word tilāwa re…

Reciters of the Qurʾān

(4,440 words)

Author(s): Melchert, Christopher | Afsaruddin, Asma
Those entrusted with the oral recitation of qurʾānic passages, or the entire text. The term “reciter” (Ar. sing. qāriʾ and
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