Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(4 words)

 see Time Bibliography

Tolerance and Coercion

(2,413 words)

Author(s): Friedmann, Yohanan
Accepting attitude towards a plurality of viewpoints and the use of force to influence behavior or beliefs. Qurʾānic vocabulary lacks a specific term to express the idea of tolerance but several verses explicitly state that religious coercion ( ikrāh) is either unfeasible or forbidden; other verses may be interpreted as expressing the same notion. Pertinent qurʾānic attitudes underwent substantial development during Muḥammad's prophetic career. The earliest reference to religious tolerance seems to be included in q 109, a sūra that recognizes the unbridgeable gap betwe…

Tolerance and Compulsion

(8 words)

 see tolerance and coercion Bibliography


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 see burial; death and the dead Bibliography


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 see time Bibliography


(6 words)

 see arabic language; speech Bibliography

Tools for the Scholarly Study of the Qurʾān

(3,465 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew
The entire body of scholarship, both Muslim and non-Muslim, must be the foundation of any responsible scholarly study of the Qurʾān. Certain tools, however, form key elements of any scholarly library. The text of the Qurʾān The basic tool for the study of the Qurʾān is, of course, the text itself. Unlike the situation in scholarly study of some other scriptures, decisions regarding the base text to be used for analysis do not face scholars from the outset. We have a text of the Qurʾān before us, accepted by every Muslim. It is the…


(7,033 words)

Author(s): Adang, Camilla P.
The scripture revealed by God to Moses (q.v.) on Mount Sinai (q.v.). In the Qurʾān, it is mentioned by name (Ar. Tawrāt) eighteen times, but a number of other terms are used for the same revelation. The Arabic word Tawrāt clearly derives, if perhaps indirectly, from the Hebrew Torah, meaning law (see Jeffery, For. vocab., 95-6; Lazarus-¶ Yafeh, Tawrāt). In keeping, however, with the widespread belief that the Qurʾān does not contain words of foreign origin (see foreign vocabulary ), Muslim commentators traced it back to an Arabic root, viz. w-r-y, which means to strike fire (q.v.), a…


(7 words)

 see suffering; reward and punishment Bibliography


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 see weather Bibliography


(7 words)

 see suffering; reward and punishment Bibliography


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 see hand Bibliography


(9 words)

 see art and architecture and the qurʾān Bibliography

Tower of Babel

(6 words)

 see babylon Bibliography


(5 words)

 see geography; city Bibliography


(7 words)

 see air and wind; ashes Bibliography

Trade and Commerce

(2,829 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew
Economic activity focused on the exchange of goods among people. The language of the Qurʾān is imbued with the vocabulary of the marketplace both in practical, day-to-day references and in metaphorical applications (see metaphor; literary structures of the qurʾān). The way in which commercial activities are to be conducted among people is dealt with as a moral issue and a matter of social regulation (see ethics and the qurʾān ). For example, rules governing contracts and trusts, and general economic principles find their place in the text and have been used within the sharīʿa to formula…

Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies

(13,815 words)

Author(s): Gilliot, Claude
In Islamic theological representation the Qurʾān is considered the “knowledge/science” ( ʿilm), so it is not surprising that the understanding and exegesis (tafsīr) of this text were considered the most excellent kinds of knowledge (see knowledge and learning ). Thus in a tradition attributed to Muḥammad (see ḥadīth and the qurʾān ), transmitted by the Companion Ibn Masʿūd (see companions of the prophet ), we read: “Whoever wants knowledge, has to scrutinize the Qurʾān, because it contains the knowledge of the first and last (generations)” (Ibn Abī Shayba, Muṣannaf, vi, 127, no. 30…

Tradition and Custom

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
The way things have been done, or are understood as having been done, in the past. In many societies the appeal to tradition and custom as the basis for current practice serves to legitimize the present. For a religion emerging in opposition to some of the beliefs and practices of its society, however, appeal to tradition or custom by its opponents is an obstacle to be overcome. At the same time, adherents of the new order may well attempt to justify it by reference to the past. In Islam the positive value of tradition is most obviously manifest in the concept of sunna (q.v.), the accepted pract…


(499 words)

Author(s): Marshall, David
Being subject to change, departure or destruction. The Qurʾān contrasts the transitoriness of this world (q.v.; see also generations; history and the qurʾān; air and wind; ashes) with the eternally enduring quality of the hereafter (see eschatology ) and also with the eternity (q.v.) of God (see god and his attributes ). The Qurʾān often states that whereas this life (al- ḥayāt al-dunyā) will pass away (e.g. q 10:24; 18:45) and both its ¶ pleasures (e.g. q 57:20) and its trials (e.g. q 7:94-5; see trial; trust and patience) are transitory, the realities to come in the hereafter ( al-ākhira) w…
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