Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

General Editor: Georgios K. Giannakis
Associate Editors: Vit Bubenik, Emilio Crespo, Chris Golston, Alexandra Lianeri, Silvia Luraghi, Stephanos Matthaios

The Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics (EAGLL) is a unique work that brings together the latest research from across a range of disciplines which contribute to our knowledge of Ancient Greek. It is an indispensable research tool for scholars and students of Greek, of linguistics, and of other Indo-European languages, as well as of Biblical literature.

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Teaching of Ancient Greek in Italy

(1,990 words)

Author(s): Giuseppe Giovanni Antonio Celano
Abstract This article outlines the study of Ancient Greek in Italy from its beginnings in the Roman world down to the modern age. The long-standing tradition of the teaching of Ancient Greek (AG) in Italy is rooted in at least the Roman world. Suetonius ( Gram. 1.2) claims that Livius Andronicus, the initiator of Latin literature, and Ennius were recorded to have taught in both languages [i.e., Greek and Latin] in Rome and abroad. Further, Ennius used to say that he had three hearts because he could speak Greek, Oscan, and Latin ( Gell. NA 17.17). These and a variety of other testimonies (…
Date: 2013-11-01

Teaching of Ancient Greek, Teaching Methods

(5,506 words)

Author(s): Vasilis Tsafos | Panagiotis Seranis
Abstract The teaching of Ancient Greek is closely associated with the aims and objectives it is called to fulfill in the educational system in each country. The long history of the teaching of Greek reveals that the subject has been approached as a high quality educational good on the grounds it nurtured students’ linguistic and mental development. For over two centuries, the main emphasis was placed primarily on form, i.e., grammar and syntax, leaving little …
Date: 2014-01-27

Temporal Clauses

(2,259 words)

Author(s): Eugenio R. Luján
Abstract Temporal clauses are subordinate clauses that express the reference time with respect to which the main clause must be interpreted. They usually have a finite verbal form, but with some markers the infinitive can instead be selected. Functionally, temporal clauses are equivalent to time adverbials or to prepositional phrases with temporal meaning. They tend to appear in an iconical order with respect to the main clause: temporal clauses referring to a prior event usually appear before the main clause, while temporal clauses of posteriority more frequently follow their main clause. Temporal clauses have been traditionally classified into clauses of anteriority (or precedence), simultaneity, and posteriority (or subsequence), depending on the temporal relationship between the event, process or state referred to by the temporal clause and that contained in the main clause. Moreover, the following meanings should be distinguished: 1. Time proper (time at which), 2. Duration (time within which), 3. Initial boundary (time since which), 4. Terminal boundary (time until which), and 5. Frequency-Peri…
Date: 2014-01-22

Tense and Aspect from Hellenistic to Early Byzantine Greek

(2,193 words)

Author(s): Klaas Bentein
Abstract This contribution focuses on tense and aspect in post-Classical and early Byzantine Greek. After discussing some recent contributions concerning so-called ‘Biblical Greek’, there follows an overview of the diachronic evolution of the temporal-aspectual system. A number of main structural tendencies are outlined, such as the loss of the synthetic Perfect and Future, the restructuring of the verbal system on the basis of two aspects and the use of periphrastic constructions.  1. Introduction Ancient (Classical) Greek is commonly said to have seven synthet…
Date: 2013-11-01

Tense/Aspect

(5,185 words)

Author(s): Jesús de la Villa
Abstract Tense and aspect are two different verbal categories in Ancient Greek. Tense refers externally to the moment when a certain event takes place, be it either in the past, in the present or in the future. Aspect, also known as ‘grammatical aspect’, refers to the internal temporal characteristics of the event, that is, if it is still in its development (imperfective), or if it is considered to be a finished event (perfective), or, finally, if it is considered to be finished but has left some…
Date: 2014-01-22

Tense (khrónos), Ancient Theories of

(1,454 words)

Author(s): Jean Lallot
Abstract The Greek term khrónos denotes the values both of time and tense. In the latter sense, it refers to one of the eight temporal attributes of the verb. Each of the six paradigms of the indicative (present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, aorist, future) is a khrónos . The analysis of the respective values of the various khrónoi, proposed by the Greek grammarians appeals principally to a temporality pivoted about the moment of enunciation. However, some modal usages (optative, imperative) of the present and aorist stems led the ancient analysts…
Date: 2013-11-01

Text Linguistics and Greek

(2,235 words)

Author(s): Gerry Wakker
Abstract Text linguistics is the part of linguistics that studies texts as communication systems. Text linguistics takes into account not only the form of a text, but also its setting, its (linguistic and non-linguistic, situational) context. Text linguistics was developed in order to account for phenomena that could not be described by means of a sentence-based approach. More or less simultaneously, from the 1970s onwards, text linguistics entered the study of Ancient Greek as well. It brought n…
Date: 2013-11-01