Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(7 words)

Author(s): not-specified
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(7 words)

Author(s): not-specified
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Baghdad Arabic

(5,315 words)

Author(s): Farida Abu-Haidar
1. Introduction 1.1 Baghdad, the capital and the seat of government and financial operations, is situated on the river Tigris in the center of Iraq. In 2003 it was estimated that its population exceeded five million inhabitants, 60 percent of whom are Shiʿi. The rest are mainly Sunni, with a Christian minority comprising Chaldean Catholics, Assyrians (Orthodox and Catholics), and a small number of Greek Catholics and Protestants. The number of Mandeans, another religious minority, has decreased to fewer than two t…

Baghdad Arabic Jewish

(5,855 words)

Author(s): not-specified
1. General 1.1 Speakers Jewish Baghdad Arabic is the Arabic dialect spoken by the Jews of Baghdad and other towns of Lower Iraq. The dialects spoken by Jews in Upper Iraq, such as in ʿAna and Mosul, differ in some aspects from that of Baghdad. The Jews spoke Jewish Baghdadi at home and with members of their community, but with Muslims they used the Muslim dialect or Classical Arabic. Jewish Baghdadi was also used abroad, in Jewish…

Bahraini Arabic

(9,469 words)

Author(s): Clive Holes
1. General 1.1 Area …


(1,393 words)

Author(s): Dinie Bouwman
1. Bambara and Arabic Bambara is the largest language family of the Mande group (Niger-Congo family). From the 19th century onward, Bambara gained influence in the region as li…


(1,204 words)

Author(s): Ali Riaz
Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 after a lengthy nationalist movement which emphasized the linguistic identity of the Bengali population of the eastern part of …

B (Bā ʿAlwī ibn ʿAbdallāh al-ʿAllāma aṭ-Ṭāhir - bāṭin)

(1,811 words)

Bā ʿAlwī ibn ʿAbdallāh al-ʿAllāma aṭ-Ṭāhir Indonesia Baalbaki, Munir Lexicogra…

B (Bāṭina - bilingualism, Persian/Arabic)

(1,951 words)

Bāṭina Omani Arabic Bāṭina Arabic Omani Ar…

B (bilingualism, Romance/Arabic - Būlus, Jawād)

(1,844 words)

bilingualism, Romance/Arabic Ibero-Romance Loanwords, Sicily bilingualism, Sindhi/Arabic India, Language Contact bilingualism, South Arabian/Arabic Language Contact, Lingua Franca bilingualism, Uzbek/Tajik Uzbek bilinguals Code-switching, Diglossia biliteral → biradical Biliy Arabic Northwest Arabian Arabic, Northwest Arabian Arabic, Sinai Arabic, Vowel Harmony Biltine Chad Arabic Bimbashi Arabic Juba Arabic bimoraic Phonology bimorphemic question word Interrogative Pronoun Bin Laden → ʾUsāma bin Lādin bināʾ ʾAṣl, Bināʾ, ʾIʿrāb, Jazāʾ, Kalām, Noun Phrase, Tamakkun, Tanwīn bināʾ li-l-majhūl Bʿēri Arabic binarity X-Bar Syntax binary feature Minimalism binder Syntax Binder, Friedrich Jordan Binder, Leonard Religion and Language binding Binding, Clitic, Interface Linguistics, Nominal Clauses, Resumption Binding Principle Binding, 377 …

B (Bung - Bzoch, Kenneth R.)

(213 words)

Bung Cameroon Arabic Bunnags Thai Bura West Sudanic Arabic Buraymi Arabic Omani Arabic Burchardt, Bishop Malta …

Bedouin Arabic

(5,610 words)

Author(s): Judith Rosenhouse
1. Introduction …


(3,931 words)

Author(s): Farida Abu-Haidar
1. Introduction Sociolinguists dealing with Bedouin-sedentary Arabic contact identify several stages of transition from Bedouin to urban Arabic. Cadora (1992:1), for example, cites the following five stages: Bedouin ⇒ Bedouin-Rural ⇒ Rural ⇒ Rural-Urban ⇒ Urban This is a gradual process that takes place when nomadic tribes settle in sedentary rural or urban areas and level their speech patterns in the direction of the host communities' dialects. Linguistic leveling may be complete or partial, depending on how far the settlers accommodate to their sedentary envir…

Beirut Arabic

(6,303 words)

Author(s): Samia Naïm
1. General Remarks …


(2,157 words)

Author(s): James M. Wilce
Ask Bangladeshis what divides Muslim from Hindu speech and they will mention pani (vs. jɔl) ‘water’. This favorite index actually derives from Sanskrit. Yet, the ‘Muslim’ valeur of pani is a social fact. Such facts warrant attention to ideological representations of ‘Perso-Arabic’ lexemes in Bengali – and suggest that lists of loanwords require reanalysis in terms of ideologies. 1. Semantic domains The semantic categories of Arabic loanwords in Bengali reveal the history of Bengali Islam. “The ordinary Bengali words for ‘paper’ kagɔj (Arabic kaġaḏ) and ‘pen’ kɔlɔm (Arabic qalam) [a…


(2,440 words)

Author(s): Jorge Aguadé
1. Arabic and Berber At the end of the 7th century, when the first Arabs came to Morocco during the Islamic conquests, Berber was the dominant language in Northern Africa with the exception of some Latinized towns on the Mediterranean coast, whose inhabitants were Romance speakers. After the Islamic conquests, the Arabization of the population seems to have been superficial and limited to the major towns. It was only after the arrival of the Arab tribes of the Banū Hilāl and Banū Sulaym in the 12th century that Arabization progressed in the Maghreb (Colin 1986:1193–1194). Mo…

Berber Loanwords

(3,915 words)

Author(s): Abderrahman El Aissati
1. A brief history of Berber/Arabic contacts The oldest known populations of North Africa are the Libyans or libici. Morocco, as part of this area, had its share in the colonization waves under the Phoenicians, the Romans, and finally the Arabs or Muslims in the 7th century. The last wave of Arabic-speaking people arrived in Morocco in the 15th century, as a result of the fall of Muslim Spain. Each of these waves had a large impact on social and cultural life in Morocco. It is clear that Arabic – in its different forms – was the m…

Bʿēri Arabic

(5,132 words)

Author(s): not-specified
1. General Bʿēri Arabic is a variety of Upper Egyptian Arabic spoken on the West Bank at Luxor between Gurnat Marʿi in the north and Armanṭ in the south in a region named ilBiʿeṛāt (see Ramzī 1963:164). The speakers make a living in agricul- Table 1. Inventory of consonants bilabial labiodental alveolar postalveolar palatal velar pharyngeal laryngeal plosive voiceless, voiced t, d j k, g ʾ emphatic b ṭ, ḍ nasal m n fricatives voiceless, voiced f s, z š x, ġ ḥ, ʿ h emphatic ṣ, ẓ trill r emphatic ṛ lateral l emphatic ḷ glides w y ture and their number is unknown. They claim Bedouin descent fro…