Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Fable, animal, in Muslim Southeast Asia

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Wieringa, Edwin P.
Many of the animal fables in the two major literary traditions of Muslim Southeast Asia —Malay and Javanese—are translations and/or adaptations from foreign sources, primarily Arabic, Persian, and Indian, and, in the modern period, European. These works belong to the genre of edifying literature, designed to regulate the behaviour of Muslims (Braginsky, 340–1). They generally consist of collections of relatively short stories with animal characters endowed with human qualities, intended to teach moral lessons…
Date: 2019-05-08


(1,497 words)

Author(s): Hassan Salam Bazzi Hamzé
1. Definition The fāʿil (lit. ‘he who does’) corresponds, in the analysis of the Arab grammarians, to the protagonist of the verb. It is the primary element to which the verb relates (Sībawayhi, Kitāb I, 33–34), meaning that the verb “does not go without it” (Sīrāfī, Šarḥ II, 267). In fact, the verb ( fiʿl) and its fāʿil constitute a pair “each of whose two elements cannot go without the other, and which the speaker cannot do without” ( lā yaġnā wāḥidun min-humā ʿan al-ʾāxar wa-lā yajidu l-mutakallim min-hu buddan; Sībawayhi, Kitāb I, 23). For the Arab grammarians, the fāʿil is a syntactic fu…
Date: 2018-04-01

Family: Modern Islamic Discourses: Turkey

(9,775 words)

Author(s): Berna Yazıcı
Introduction Modern discourses on the family have long been at the center of sociopolitical life in Turkey. This article focuses on these discourses. First, it provides a historical background, discussing the emergence of the discourse on the family in the late Ottoman empire and early Republican Turkey. It then explores the emerging discourse. The discussion highlights both the continuities and discontinuities that exist between the earlier historical and the contemporary discourses on the famil…


(4 words)

see Persian
Date: 2018-04-01


(4,439 words)

Author(s): Georgine Ayoub
Ibn Jinnī (d. 392/1002) defines grammar ( naḥw) as follows: “It is to follow the way the Arabs speak… so that the non-Arabs might have access to the Arabs' faṣāḥa” ( Xaṣāʾiṣ I, 34). More than a thousand years later, written Arabic is still called al-luġa al-fuṣḥā. This shows how the notion of faṣāḥa is an essential component of Arab language thinking. The root f-ṣ-ḥ is very ancient and is found in other Semitic languages. From f-ṣ-ḥ is derived fiṣḥ ‘Jewish Passover’, also ‘Christian Easter’ ( Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān, s.v.). In some Semitic languages, f-ṣ-ḥ is explicitly associated with somethi…
Date: 2018-04-01


(4 words)

see Gender
Date: 2018-04-01

Feminism, Islam and Gender: Iran

(6,337 words)

Author(s): Yalda Nafiseh Hamidi
Introduction Locally grounded feminist practices and thought in Muslim countries such as Iran and Egypt have been influential and dynamic for more than a century, but Islamic feminism as a field of study is about four decades old only. This article provides a survey of the literature on Islamic feminism in Iran, comparing and contrasting it with Islamic feminism in Arab societies. Although the article focuses primarily on the literature on Islamic feminism in Iran and explains the specificity of …

F (fa- - Folmer, M.L.)

(2,098 words)

fa- ʿAmal, Conjunctions, Connectives, Deixis, Discourse Analysis, Energicus, Grounding, Jazāʾ, Kalām, Media Arabic, Middle Verbs, Poetic Koine, Polarity, Sentence Coordination, Sentence Coordination, Theme/Rheme, Translation Literature, Word Order fa-, resumptive Connectives faʿal Ism faʿala Middle Verbs faʿāli Interjection, Ism al-fiʿl, Lexicography: Classical Arabic Faber, Alice Dialects: Genesis, Northwest Arabian Arabic, South Semitic Languages fable Proverb face affront Dysphemism face saving Dysphemism facial expression in sign language Sign Languages fac…
Date: 2018-04-01

F (Fontinoy, Charles - Fyodorova, El’vira)

(1,275 words)

Fontinoy, Charles Pseudodual foot Phonology, Phonology: Metrical foot assignment rule Phonology: Metrical foot dominance Phonology: Metrical foot, binary Phonology: Metrical foot, degenerate Stress, Stress foot, iambic Phonology, Phonology: Metrical, Syncope foot, left-dominant Phonology, Phonology: Metrical foot, metrical Ḥarf, Phonology: Metrical foot, poetic Rhyme, foot, right-dominant Phonology, Phonology: Metrical foot, trochaic Phonology, Phonology: Metrical, Syncope Force Subordination foreground Contrastive Grammar, Grounding, Topic and Comme…
Date: 2018-04-01