Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Jargon

(3,083 words)

Author(s): Elizabeth M. Bergman
1. Definition and name ‘Jargon’ may be broadly defined as “the modifications that a socioprofessional group brings to the national language (especially in vocabulary and pronunciation)” (Ducrot and Todorov 1979:59). These modifications appear to arise from the particular or specific nature of the topic, the need for group members not to be understood by others, or the wish to identify the group as somehow different (Ducrot and Todorov 1979:59). Jargon thus includes technical terminology and speciali…

Javanese

(2,326 words)

Author(s): Rochayah Machali
1. Introduction Javanese is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes the languages of the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Madagascar, and the Pacific. It is spoken on the island of Java, but not all who live on Java speak the language. It is spoken only in Central and East Java, with the Central Javanese variety being considered the standard. The Javanese constitute the largest ethnic group in the Indonesian population, and it is estimated that 40 percent of the Indonesian population speaks Javanese. …

Jazāʾ

(2,421 words)

Author(s): Kinga Dévényi
1. Conditional structures in Classical and Modern Standard Arabic The following description is only a very brief introduction to the basic types of conditional sentences in Arabic, which seem to have undergone a number of modifications in Modern Standard Arabic. For a detailed description of all the possible variations within these structures in Classical Arabic, see Trumpp (1881) and Peled (1992); for the Qurʾānic usage, see Tietz (1963); and for the changes that are apparent in Modern Standard Arabic, consult Badawi a.o. (2004: Chap. 8). The basic type of conditional sentences…

Jerusalem Arabic

(6,292 words)

Author(s): Judith Rosenhouse
1. General Jerusalem Arabic is the colloquial Arabic dialect spoken in Jerusalem. It includes three communal subdialects of the Muslims, Christians, and Jews, although the differences among them are not large (Blanc 1960). Jerusalem Arabic is an urban dialect within the larger dialect area of aš-Šām, which extends from Syria to Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan. The dialects of this region are part of the Eastern dialects within the Arabic-speaking world. The number of Jerusalem's inhabitants is at present about 500,000 people (mainly Jewish since the establishment of I…