Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(3,791 words)

Author(s): Djamel Eddine Kouloughli
1. Preliminary remarks …

Language Academies

(5,005 words)

Author(s): Mohammed Sawaie
1. Academy precursors…

Language Acquisition

(11 words)

see First Language Acquisition ; Second Language Acquisition

Language and Gender

(5,909 words)

Author(s): Fatima Sadiqi
1. Introduction …

Language Contact

(7,062 words)

Author(s): Sarah G. Thomason
1. Topics and territories …

Language Impairment

(4,619 words)

Author(s): Mohammad T. Alhawary
1. Classification and causes …

Language Loss

(4,374 words)

Author(s): Abderrahman El Aissati
1. Introduction …

Language Maintenance

(7 words)

see Language Shift: Amazigh

Language Pathology

(4,614 words)

Author(s): Sabah M.Z. Safi
Language pathologies are distinguished from speech pathologies in that the former are concerned with dysfunctions of the symbolic linguistic system, including manifestations of the deficit in all modes of language use such as writing, reading, speech, hearing, and signing (e.g. aphasia, dyslexia, agraphia), while the latter are concerned with the use of sounds without any reference necessarily to meaning or phonology (e.g. aphonia, stuttering, or hearing impairment). The traditional classification of language pathologies is along the lines of production and c…

Language Policies and Language Planning

(9,385 words)

Author(s): Kassim Shaaban
1. Introduction The place of Arabs in the modern world has been determined to a large extent by the fact that, beginning around the end of World War I and well into the post-World War II period, the majority of the countries of the Arab world were under British or French mandate, in accordance with the Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916. The development plans of these countries and their emergent political, economic, administrative, and educational systems were established during the colonial period and modeled largely after the French and British s…

Language Shift: Amazigh

(6,332 words)

Author(s): Yamina El Kirat el Allame
1. Introduction The term ‘ language shift’ refers to the change from the habitual use of one language to that of another. This implies that a community gives up a language in favor of another one. When shift has taken place, members of the community are said to have collectively chosen a new language instead of their native one (Fasold 1984). This is, in fact, a common result of extensive language contact, occurring typically where there is a sharp difference in prestige and levels of official support for the languages concerned. Language shift is not the only possible outcome of language cont…

Language Teaching

(11 words)

see First Language Teaching ; Second Language Teaching

Latin America

(3,388 words)

Author(s): Ernesto Capello
1. Introduction …

Latin Loanwords

(1,880 words)

Author(s): Irfan Shahîd
Greek contributed more loanwords than Latin, but some loanwords from Latin, as relatively few as they are, have become part and parcel of the Arabic language, owing to the strong Roman military and administrative presence in the region. Others had an ephemeral life in Arabic and have survived only in medieval historical texts that refer to the distan…


(6,615 words)

Author(s): Elie Wardini
1. Historical overview The Canaanite dialect known as Phoenician, attested from the second half of the second millennium BCE up to first century CE in Canaan proper, seems to have been the only language indigenous to Lebanon (Canaan/ Phoenicia). Along with Phoenician, and in the context of the domination of the great powers of the time, Egypt and Mesopotamia, both Egyptian and Akkadian were used in the mid-second and first half of the first millennium BCE, mainly for diplomatic purposes. The first millennium BCE saw the rise of Aramaic as the lingua franca of the Near East,…


(3,469 words)

Author(s): Reem Bassiouney
1. Definition …
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