Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Lexical Variation: Modern Standard Arabic

(5,153 words)

Author(s): Ibrahim Zeinab
1. Lexical variation in Arabic Lexical variation is an area of sociolinguistics which studies differences in certain lexical items used by various speech communities. This phenomenon can be attributed to many variables, such as the nature of the language itself, geography, social status, individual preferences, topic, hierarchy, language academies, media, etc. Modern Standard Arabic reflects the variability of one language still in use. It can be traced back centuries to the pre- and early-Islamic periods and found in the lexical variability among the numerous Arab tribes. Lexica…
Date: 2018-04-01

Lexicography: Bilingual Dictionaries

(5,883 words)

Author(s): Jan Hoogland
This entry deals with bilingual dictionaries which have Arabic as the source or target language. The first bilingual dictionaries developed within the Arabic lexicographical tradition from 11th-century monolingual dictionaries (lexicography: Classical Arabic). In the 17th century, European Orientalists started to take part in Arabic lexicography (Arabic studies in Europe). The earliest representatives of this European development followed the original Arabic tradition closely. Only at a later stage did they join the Western lexicographical tradition. 1. Historical ove…
Date: 2018-04-01

Lexicography: Classical Arabic

(5,350 words)

Author(s): Tilman Seidensticker
1. Range and importance Within Classical Arabic literature, lexicographical writings form an extensive and multifaceted branch, having produced remarkable results in the period from the late 2nd/8th century to the 12th/18th century and flourishing particularly in the 4th/10th century. Along with dictionaries proper – i.e. books arranging all the elements of the Classical Arabic vocabulary in alphabetical order and explaining them – there were many other types of books. The aim of covering the whole …
Date: 2018-04-01

Lexicography: Monolingual Dictionaries

(5,011 words)

Author(s): Ahmad Taher Hassanein
1. Introduction In the first half of the 2nd century A.H. (8th century C.E.), speakers of Arabic encountered numerous communication problems due to the variability of their language at the time. Natural processes of language change, due primarily to the lack of standardization, were evident in the way people pronounced words, structured words morphologically, and structured sentences. This phenomenon spurred Sībawayhi (d. 168/784) to write the first comprehensive Arabic grammar, al-Kitāb. This work set forth rules for all aspects of grammar, including phonology, m…
Date: 2018-04-01

Lexicon: Matrix and Etymon Model

(4,998 words)

Author(s): Georges Bohas
1. Introduction The first comments by Arab grammarians on the relationship between sound and meaning (lafḍ; maʿnā) were related to the imitation of the sounds made by insects and birds. Their observations correspond to the theory that onomatopoeia is at the origin of human language. The idea that the shape of a word is the copy of the perceptible form, and thus a way of grasping the intelligible, is an idea that appears with considerable insistence in Ibn Jinnī's writings. He was one of the grammarians who paid the most attention to matters pertaining to the ph…
Date: 2018-04-01
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