Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(639 words)

Author(s): Tariq Rahman
Tariq Rahman Bibliography …


(6,079 words)

Author(s): Petra M. Sijpesteijn
1. Introduction The very first verses that were revealed to the Prophet Muḥammad, according to the tradition, symbolize the importance attached to writing in the society in which Islam arose: “Recite! Your Lord is the Most Bountiful One, who by this pen taught man what he did not know” (Q. 96/1–5). While only a minority in the world of medieval and premodern Islam (7th–19th centuries) would have been able to read and write, the written word was everywhere – in the form of administrative records, private and pub…


(1,346 words)

Author(s): Chakir Zeroual
1. Introduction …

Palestinian Arabic

(6,658 words)

Author(s): Kimary N. Shahin
1. General 1.1 Area Palestinian Arabic is spoken in Palestine (Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip; see Map 1). As more than 50 percent of Palestinians live elsewhere, it is also spoken around the world.   1.2 Speakers Palestinian Arabic is a native language to approximately 8.5 million people. The lifestyles in the dialect area are urban, rural, Bedouin, and Gypsy. In 1948 and 1967, when the State of Israel was formed and expanded on Palestinian land, many rural families resettled in towns and cities, so the number of speakers with a…


(5 words)

see Sentence Coordination


(3,150 words)

Author(s): Jonathan Owens
1. Common structures 1.1 Morphology Morphologically, both active and passive participles are regularly derived from a verb. The active/passive participles have the form fāʿil/mafʿūl in the basic form, and and in the derived forms they essentially have mV- + imperfect/perfect stem. Because both participles are inflected like adjectives, in Classical Arabic they take case endings. Furthermore, with a rare dialectal exception (see (22) and (23) below), like adjectives, they are not inflected for person. In Classical Arabic the masculine plural usually takes sound plural suffixes - ū…


(3,113 words)

Author(s): Vít Bubeník
1. Morphology The finite passive is formed two ways in Arabic: internally (the apophonic passive) and externally (formed by a prefix). The apophonic passive displays the vowel sequence u – i instead of a – a or a – i

Passive (Syntax)

(3,103 words)

Author(s): Amira Agameya
1. Structural properties of the passive …


(5 words)

see Language Pathology

Pausal Forms

(4,478 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
1. Introduction …


(4,463 words)

Author(s): John R. Perry
1. History and evolution With the Arab conquest of Iran in the 7th century and the conversion of a majority of the population to Islam, Arabic came to exert a profound influence on the Persian language. The form of Persian affected was not literary Middle Persian ( pårsīk, commonly called Pahlavi), which was identified with Zoroastrian religious literature and written in a form of the Aramaic script, but rather the related vernacular of the court milieu of Seleucia-Ctesiphon ( Madāʾin) and other parts of the Persian Empire, called Dari by Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (see Lazard 1990). By the mid…

Persian Loanwords

(2,683 words)

Author(s): Asya Asbaghi
In the pre-Islamic period, Arabs and Persians had some contact in border areas of the Arabian Peninsula. There were, for example, the Lakhmids, who were in the service of Sassanian Persia and secured the border against invasions from Bedouin tribes from the desert. Almost half a century before the advent of Islam, Yemen came under the rule of Sassanians and Persian governors, who ruled there even after the advent of Islam. These contacts had linguistic implications, and we find a comparatively l…

Personal Pronoun (Arabic Dialects)

(2,862 words)

Author(s): not-specified
1. Independent personal pronouns The various paradigms may be grouped into three categories, according to types of dialects: Bedouin dialects, without geographical distinction, and sedentary dialects, both Eastern and Western. The forms of the independent personal pronouns for each of the three categories are given in Table 1. Table 1. Independent personal pronouns in three types of dialects: Bedouin (Rosenhouse 1984:17–18), Cairo (Jomier and Khouzam 1977:36), and Moroccan koine (Caubet 1993:I, 159) Free pronouns Bedouin Eastern sedentary Western sedentary 1 comm. sg. ani, ān…

Personal Pronoun (Standard Arabic)

(3,279 words)

Author(s): David L. Appleyard
Pronouns in Arabic exhibit the usual three persons: 1st person or speaker(s), 2nd person or addressee(s), and 3rd person or the subject of discourse, i.e. the person(s) or thing(s) spoken about. In Arabic, the 1st person has only two number forms, a singular and a nonsingular (i.e. dual and plural), and does not distinguish gender. The other persons all distinguish three numbers, singular, dual, and plural, and two genders, masculine and feminine, except in the dual. This gives Standard Arabic a…