Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(639 words)

Author(s): Tariq Rahman
Tariq Rahman Bibliography …


(6,079 words)

Author(s): Petra M. Sijpesteijn
1. Introduction …


(1,346 words)

Author(s): Chakir Zeroual
1. Introduction …

Palestinian Arabic

(6,658 words)

Author(s): Kimary N. Shahin
1. General 1.1 Area Palestinian Arabic is spoken in Palestine (Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip; see Map 1). As more than 50 percent of Palestinians live elsewhere, it is also spoken around the world.   1.2 Speakers Palestinian Arabic is a native language to approximately 8.5 million people. The lifestyles in the dialect area are urban, rural, Bedouin, and Gypsy. In 1948 and 1967, when the State of Israel was formed and expanded on Palestinian land, many rural families resettled in towns and cities, so the number of s…


(3,150 words)

Author(s): Jonathan Owens
1. Common structures 1.1 Morphology Morphologically, both active and passive participles are regularly derived from a verb. The active/passive participles have the form fāʿil/mafʿūl in the basic form, and and in the derived forms they essentially have mV- + imperfect/perfect stem. Because both participles are inflected like adjectives, in Classical Arabic they take case endings. Furthermore, with a rare dialectal exception (see (22) and (23) below), like adjectives, they are not inflected for person. In Classical Arabic the masculine plural usually takes sound plural suffixes - ū…


(3,113 words)

Author(s): not-specified
1. Morphology The finite passive is formed two ways in Arabic: internally (the apophonic passive) and externally (formed by a prefix). The apophonic passive displays the vowel sequence u – i instead of a – a or a – i of its active counterpart in the perfect. In the imperfect, the apophonic passive uniformly displays the vowel a instead of i/u (as the second vowel), and all the forms are inflected with the u-series of the prefixes: (1) perfect imperfect I faʿala fuʿila yafʿa/i/ulu yufʿalu II faʿʿala fuʿʿila yufaʿʿilu yufaʿʿalu IV ʾafʿala ʾufʿila yufʿilu yufʿalu The apophonic system ‘leaks’…

Passive (Syntax)

(3,103 words)

Author(s): Amira Agameya
1. Structural properties of the passive An active sentence changes into the passive by undergoing a number of structural changes. First, the subject of the sentence is deleted. Second, the object becomes the subject of the sentence and receives nominative case. Third, the active verb changes into the passive by changing its vowels, the change being dependent upon the tense or type of the verb, as described below. Fourth, the verb agrees in person and gender with the new subject in the Verb-Subject order and in person, gender, and number in the Subject-Verb order. (1) našara l-kātib-u publis…

Pausal Forms

(4,478 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
1. Introduction A pausal form is the form a word has at the end of a sentence or major phrase or before a pause or stop in the speech flow ( waqf), if that is different from the form it takes in the beginning or middle of a phrase. In Classical and Modern Standard Arabic, most words have different pausal and medial forms. Phonetic pausal phenomena probably occur in all languages, although they may differ from language to language, but morphologically conditioned pausal changes are much rarer, and they are the ones most often …


(6 words)

Author(s): not-specified
Not Specified


(1,986 words)

Author(s): not-specified
The motivation for the distinction between performatives and statements is that the former constitute events rather than descriptions of events or states of affairs (Searle 1969, 1971). In other words, the act of uttering a performative is itself the action purported by the speaker. For example, the performative utterance in (1), when issued by a lawyer in the context of a court session, amounts to registering an objection rather than reporting or describing an event of objecting taking place at speech time. (1) ʾana ʾa-ʿtariḍ I 1s-object ‘I object!’ The major difference between per…


(6 words)

Author(s): not-specified
Not Specified


(4,463 words)

Author(s): John R. Perry
1. History and evolution …

Personal Pronoun (Arabic Dialects)

(2,862 words)

Author(s): not-specified
1. Independent personal pronouns …