Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(4,593 words)

Author(s): Christophe Pereira
  1. History and Arabization Before the Arab invasion in the 7th century C.E., Libyans, Jews, Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines peopled those countries which make up today's Libya. The Libyans were ancestors of the Berbers and spoke Libyan, from which derived the rest of the Berber dialects. Libyco-Berber (along with Egyptian, Couchitic, Chadian, and Semitic) is one of the five branches of the Hamito-Semitic or Afro-Asiatic linguistic tree (Larcher 2001:43). The Phoenicians, having first founded the Punic town of Carthage, built a coastal empire in Tripolitania,…
Date: 2018-04-01


(4 words)

see Thamudic
Date: 2018-04-01

Lingua Franca

(4,061 words)

Author(s): Catherine Miller
1. Lingua franca: Functions and structures The term ‘ lingua franca’ (or vehicular language) designates any language used as a means of interethnic communication in a multilingual setting. It usually refers to the spoken levels rather than to written levels, although an oral form of a lingua franca can become a written and standardized language. Lingua francas have been known since early Antiquity (for instance, Akkadian and Aramaic in the Near East). The development of a lingua franca is usually associated with one of the following historical and socioeconomic factors: expansion of tr…
Date: 2018-04-01

Linguistics and Arabic

(4,732 words)

Author(s): Bernard Comrie
1. Introduction This entry shows some of the key relations between data from the Arabic language and developments in general linguistics. Although the relevant aspects are sometimes described primarily as contributions from general linguistics to Arabic language studies and sometimes from Arabic to general linguistics, the crucial point throughout is the interaction between our understanding of the structure of the Arabic language and our understanding of language as a general phenomenon. In most, if not all, cases, th…
Date: 2018-04-01


(2,433 words)

Author(s): Ahmad Taher Hassanein
The basic meaning of lisān is ‘tongue’ (cf. al-Yāzijī 1954, s.v.). However, it has numerous other meanings. The data about this word can be gathered from texts in the Qurʾān and the Ḥadīt̲ and from common literary expressions in both prose and poetry. The purpose of this entry is to clarify the sense in which this word is used in the Arabic heritage as well as in linguistics. In the Qurʾān, lisān is used 25 times, 18 times in the singular, 7 times in the plural ʾalsina (ʿAbd al-Bāqī 1963:647, entry l-s-n). It means ‘a part of the mouth’ or ‘an organ of speech and taste in human beings…
Date: 2018-04-01

List of Contributors

(2,285 words)

Abdelâli Bentahila, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Morocco Abdellah Chekayri, Al Akhawayn University, Ifrane, Morocco Abderrahim Youssi, Mohamed V University, Morocco Abderrahman El Aissati, Tilburg University, The Netherlands Abdul Aziz Lodhi Uppsala, Sweden Abdul Sahibmehdi Ali University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates ʿAbdulfattah Olayiwola, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Abdullah Hassan al-Saqqaf, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman Adam Gacek, McGill University, Canada Adamantios I. Gafos, New York University, U.S.A. Adrian Måcelaru University of Bucharest…
Date: 2018-04-01


(4,337 words)

Author(s): Mohamed Maamouri
This entry describes the definitional scope of Arabic literacy. Current literacy and educational statistics in the Arab region are presented and linked to the nature and complexities of Arabic reading. Some underlying linguistic reasons for the spread of illiteracy, such as diglossia, language policy and attitudes, and the Arabic writing system are then introduced and analyzed. Finally, a brief analytical review of current Arabic reading research and a short reference list are provided. 1. Definitional scope Although not exactly a synonym of ‘ reading’, the English term for ‘ litera…
Date: 2018-04-01

Literary Arabic

(10 words)

see Modern Standard Arabic ; Classical Arabic
Date: 2018-04-01

L (Latin, Sicilian - loanverb, Maltese)

(1,808 words)

Latin, Sicilian Sicily Latin, stress in Stress Latin, Vulgar Declension Latin/Arabic dictionary Lexicography: Bilingual Dictionaries latinier Andalus Lattakia Cilician Arabic Latvian Substrate Laufer, Asher Voice (Phonetics) Lausanne, Treaty of Turkey Lavandera, Beatriz R. Political Discourse and Language Laver, John Phonetics, Phonetics, Speech Errors, Syllable Structure, Voice (Phonetics) law Andalusi Arabic, Concessive Clause, Conjunctions, Copula, Damascus Arabic, Jazāʾ, Mood (Standard Arabic), Relative Clause, Translation Literature Law of Coordination …
Date: 2018-04-01

L (L - Latin, Pig)

(1,929 words)

L Modern Standard Arabic L1 → first language L2 → second language lā Media Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Mood (Standard Arabic), Negation, Negation, Syntax, Translation Literature la- ʿAmal, Anatolian Arabic, Asseverative Particle, Compounds, Defective Verbs, Energicus, Focus, ʿIlla, ʾInna wa-ʾaxawātuhā, Jazāʾ, Jerusalem Arabic, Khuzestan Arabic, Māḍī and Muḍāriʿ, Taʿlīq lā li-nafy al-jins Grammatical Tradition: History lā li-n-nafy ʿAmal lā of absolute negation Reanalysis laʿalla ʾInna wa-ʾaxawātuhā, Personal Pronoun (Standard Arabic) Labai…
Date: 2018-04-01

L (loanword - Luo)

(1,919 words)

loanword Anaptyxis, Anatolian Arabic, Anatolian Arabic, Baghdad Arabic Jewish, Baghdad Arabic Jewish, Bahraini Arabic, Beirut Arabic, Classical Arabic, Code-switching, Coptic Loanwords, Derivation, Mechanisms of Linguistic Change, Media Arabic, Noun, Root, Songhay, South Semitic Languages loanword, adaptation of Language Contact loanword, adoption of Language Contact loanwords from Classical Arabic Ḥassāniyya Arabic, Khartoum Arabic, Phonology loanwords in Arabic Terminology loanwords in Ottoman Turkish Language Contact loanwords in the Qurʾān Faṣīḥ, Langua…
Date: 2018-04-01

L (Lur - Lyons, John)

(69 words)

Lur Ki-Nubi Lūṭ ibn Sām ibn Nūḥ Nationalism and Language luṯga Language Impairment Luxenberg, Christoph Aramaic/Syriac Loanwords, Proper Names, Qirāʾāt Luxor Bʿēri Arabic, Educated Arabic, Gypsy Arabic Luxor Arabic Educated Arabic, Educated Arabic luzūm Sajʿ LVCSR Automatic Language Processing Lydda Ivrit Loanwords lying Insults Lykke-Nielsen, Helle Language Impairment Lyon Mood (Arabic Dialects), Tense Lyons, John Connectives, Mood (Arabic Dialects), Mood (Arabic Dialects), Performatives
Date: 2018-04-01