Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Middle Arabic

(6,027 words)

Author(s): Jérôme Lentin
1. Definition The very term ‘ Middle Arabic’ is ambiguous because of the history of its use, the multiple meanings of the term ‘middle’ (historically middle, sociolinguistically intermediate, linguistically mixed – not to mention the middling quality of texts, in the opinion of some people), and the variety of views on the history of the Arabic language. Different definitions or characterizations have thus been proposed. As is the case for other languages, ‘Middle’ has been used to refer to a historic…
Date: 2018-04-01

Middle Verbs

(2,223 words)

Author(s): Zouhair Maalej
The transitivity system in Arabic includes two classes of verbs: lāzim lit. ‘stationary’, corresponding to the intransitive pattern in English, and mutaʿaddin lit. ‘crossing over [to an object]’, corresponding to the transitive pattern (taʿaddin). Intran-sitive verbs are self-sufficient, not requiring for the completion of their meaning more than the subject or fāʿil lit. ‘the doer’, e.g. ḏahaba zaydun ‘Zayd left’. It is agreed that transitive verbs need for the completion of their meaning a mafʿūl bihi lit. ‘affected complement’, a direct object form. For a more compr…
Date: 2018-04-01


(572 words)

Author(s): Michael P. Streck
The term ‘mimation’ is used for the - m ending of the case suffixes in some Semitic languages. In Proto-Semitic, the singular of the noun had case suffixes with final - m (Diem 1975:243), as reflected in the most ancient attested languages: Akkadian and Amorite (both - um, -im, -am), Old Canaanite in Egyptian transcription (- m), and Sabaic (- m) (Brockelmann 1908:472–474; Moscati a.o. 1964:96–99; Diem 1975:241–242; Layton 1990:157–159; Lipiński 1997:272–273; Streck 2000:259–260). This final - m originally had no (in)determinate value. It cannot be assigned any other fun…
Date: 2018-04-01


(4,008 words)

Author(s): Joost Kremers
1. The minimalist framework Minimalism is the name of the predominant approach in generative linguistics today. It was first introduced by Chomsky in his work The minimalist program (1995) and has undergone several developments and changes since. The central idea of minimalism is that a linguistic theory should contain as few nonderived assumptions as possible. Many notions that had been developed in earlier generative theory, in particular the Government and Binding theory (GB), have been abandoned in an attempt to derive them from more basic concepts. In Chomsky's (1995) view, …
Date: 2018-04-01

M (Mansour, Jacob - mechanism of grammaticalization)

(1,648 words)

Mansour, Jacob Baghdad Arabic Jewish, Iraq, Judaeo-Arabic, Verbal Clause Mansouri, Fethi Contrastive Grammar, Second Language Acquisition manṣūb ʿAmal, Aspect, Fiʿl, Ḥāl, ʾInna wa-ʾaxawātuhā, Mafʿūl, Mood (Standard Arabic), Noun Phrase, Script and Art, Verb Mansur, Paulo Jorge Latin America Manṣūra Educated Arabic, India, Pakistan Manṣūrī, ʿAlī ibn Sulaymān al- Ḍād manṭaqa al-wusṭā Djibouti/Eritrea manṭiq Majhūra/Mahmūsa, Mali, Terminology, Translation Literature manṭiqiyyūn Mawḍūʿ Mantran, Robert Libya, Tripoli Arabic manṯūr Nasx, Šiʿr Manūnī, Muḥammad al- Maġr…
Date: 2018-04-01

M (M’barek, Mohamed Nait - Mansoor, Menahem)

(1,637 words)

M’barek, Mohamed Nait Code-switching mā ʿAmal, Bahraini Arabic, Bedouin Arabic, Classicism, Conjunctions, Connectives, Fronting, Grammaticalization, Interrogative Pronoun, Jazāʾ, Jerusalem Arabic, Juba Arabic, Khartoum Arabic, Khuzestan Arabic, Kuwaiti Arabic, Middle Arabic, Negation, Negation, Pre-Islamic Arabic, Qurʾān, Reanalysis, Relative Clause, Relative Clause, Reanalysis, Semantic Extension, Syntax Ma Fuchu China mā ḥijāziyya Pre-Islamic Arabic mā huwa huwa Xabar Ma Jian [Muḥammad Mākīn aṣ-Ṣīnī] China Ma Lianyuan [Muḥammad Nūr al-Ḥaqq ibn Luqmān] China Maʾ…
Date: 2018-04-01

M (Medea - monogenesis)

(1,758 words)

Medea Algeria Medea Arabic Dialects: Classification medersa Mauritania Media Arabic Connectives, Diglossia, Educated Arabic, Educated Arabic, Gulf States, Gulf States, ʾIḍāfa, Leveling, Lexical Variation: Modern Standard Arabic, Lexical Variation: Modern Standard Arabic, Media media language Code-switching, Connectives media, Arabic North America media, Chadian Chad Arabic media, news Internet, Media Arabic, Media Arabic medial Phonetics Medial Gemination Rule Gemination medicine, Greek Translation Literature Medina ʿArab, Compounds, Meccan Arabic, Pre-Isl…
Date: 2018-04-01

M (monolingual - muqaṭṭaʿ)

(1,725 words)

monolingual Child Bilingualism, Child Bilingualism, Code-switching, Contrastive Grammar monolingualism Diglossia, Multilingualism monolingualism in Nubia Noun monolingualism in Turkey Turkey monolingualism, Amazigh Language Shift: Amazigh monologue Classicism, Grounding, Word Order monologue, formal Classicism monomoraic Phonology monophthong Northwest Arabian Arabic monophthongization Andalusi Arabic, Baghdad Arabic Jewish, Bedouin Arabic, Bʿēri Arabic, Christian Middle Arabic, Cilician Arabic, Classicism, Convergence, Damascus Ara…
Date: 2018-04-01

M (muqawwar - Mzēnah Arabic)

(769 words)

muqawwar Script and Art, T̲ulut̲ muqawwas Script and Art muqayyad ʾIʿrāb muqīm Māḍī and Muḍāriʿ, Parts of Speech muqtaḍā l-ḥāl Speech Acts muqtaḍab Meter, Meter muʿrab Bʿēri Arabic, Declension, Fiʿl, Jumla, Noun Phrase, Ṣarf, Tanwīn Murābiṭūn, al- → Almoravids murād Exclamation, Grammatical Tradition: History, Pre-Islamic Arabic, Speech Acts Murad Arabic Luġa murakkab Jumla, Kalām, Meter, Paronomasia, Parts of Speech, Phonological Merger murakkab mazjī Compounds Muraoka, Takamitsu Northwest Arabian Arabic muraqqaʿ Script and Art muraqqaʿāt Nastaʿlīq muraqqaq Ḥaraka, Ta…
Date: 2018-04-01