Encyclopedia of Christianity Online

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Subject: Religious Studies

Editors: Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milič Lochman, John Mbiti, Jaroslav Pelikan and Lukas Vischer

The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online describes modern-day Christian beliefs and communities in the context of 2000 years of apostolic tradition and Christian history. Based on the third, revised edition of the critically acclaimed German work Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon. The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online includes all 5 volumes of the print edition of 1999-2008 which has become a standard reference work for the study of Christianity past and present. Comprehensive, reflecting the highest standards in scholarship yet intended for a wide range of readers, the The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online also looks outward beyond Christianity, considering other world religions and philosophies as it paints the overall religious and socio-cultural picture in which the Christianity finds itself.

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Terre des Femmes

(442 words)

Author(s): Hübener, Britta
According to its Web site, Terre des Femmes (TdF) is “a non-profit human rights organisation that supports women and girls through international networking, public relations, campaigns, case-by-case assistance, and by promoting individual projects.” TdF was founded in Lausanne in 1981. Up to 1990 the organization consisted of a board along with active local volunteer groups. In 1990 it succeeded in establishing an office in Tübingen financed by the Labor Office. This arrangement laid the foundation for the establishment of a national headquarters with paid staff. According to th…

Terre des Hommes

(273 words)

Author(s): Strack, Peter
The Swiss journalist Edmond Kaiser (1914–2000) founded Terre des Hommes in 1960 as a program to help Algerian children (Childhood). Subsequently, other Terre des Hommes groups were created. In 1966 they joined together to form the International Federation of Terre des Hommes (IFTDH), a network of 11 autonomous national, mainly European, organizations. The international secretariat is in Geneva. The mission of the IFTDH is to support children, avoiding all racial, religious, political, cultural, or gender-based discrimination. To this end, the Terre des…

Terrorism

(3,771 words)

Author(s): Griffith, Lee
1. Term Lacking clear definition, the term “terrorism” has become a weapon itself, brandished by nations and nonstate groups alike as a propagandistic label for their adversaries. The last decades of the 20th century saw the rise of efforts to clarify the concept. According to one scheme, terrorism is violence perpetrated by groups without a state to sanction their violence, reign of terror is a state’s violent repression of its own citizens, and war is a state’s violence against foreign adversaries. Such attempts at definitional clarity raise new problems, however, for they…

Tertiaries

(581 words)

Author(s): Selge, Kurt-Victor
From the 13th century male and female tertiaries have existed within religious orders. They are a closely related “third,” or lay, order (besides the “first” and “second” orders, usually referring respectively to orders of men and of women; Clergy and Laity). They came into being in the 12th and 13th centuries when popular religious movements grew up in the towns. They are parallel to the 12th-century conversi (i.e., lay brothers) of the older orders, but adapted now to the city orders, especially the mendicants, which became common from 1200 onward. Tertiarie…

Tertullian

(762 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (ca. 160–ca. 225) was an African church father who wrote primarily in Latin. Texts available for a reconstruction of Tertullian’s biography include, next to his own writings, accounts by Eusebius (ca. 260–ca. 340) and Jerome (ca. 345–420). It has been shown, however, that information from the fourth-century authors should not be used uncritically. From his own writings it appears that Tertullian’s father possibly was in the military, and one could add Jerome’s account that his father was a centurio proconsularis, thus a centurion in the cohors I urbana in Carthage. It is highly likely that his son Tertullian belonged to the aristocracy and was perhaps at first a non-Christian. A stay in Rome is substantiated, but otherwise Tertullian appears to have lived in the North African provincial capital of Carthage; according to Jerome, he was born there.…
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