Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

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Executive Editor: Norman A. Stillman

The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online (EJIW) is the first cohesive and discreet reference work which covers the Jews of Muslim lands particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods. The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online is updated with newly commissioned articles, illustrations, multimedia, and primary source material. 

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Shaʻare ha-Mizraḥ (Puerta del Oriente), Izmir

(461 words)

Author(s): Olga Borovaya
Shaʿare Mizraḥ/Las Puertas de Oriente (The Gates of the Orient) was the first Ladino newspaper  in the Ottoman Empire. It was published in Izmir from 1845 to 1846 by Rafael Uziel ‎(1816-1881)‎, a local merchant of Italian descent.   His first attempt at founding a Ladino periodical failed: La Buena Esperansa  expected to appear in Izmir in 1842, never saw light. According to Uziel, Sha’arei Mizrah had a circulation of one hundred copies. In addition to Izmir, this bi-weekly was distributed in other cities, and its subscritption was advertised in The Jewish Chronicle of London. The paper …
Date: 2015-09-03

Shaʿar Ha-Shamayyim Synagogue, Izmir

(189 words)

Author(s): Aksel Erbahar
The Shaʿar ha-Shamayim (Gates of Heaven) Synagogue is one of the four functioning synagogues in Izmir. Built during the years 1964 to 1965, it is located in a densely populated part of the city, the Alsancak district. It is currently the most active synagogue in Izmir and has the largest congregation. The need to build a synagogue in Alsancak emerged in 1945 when many Jews began to move there from other parts of the city, such as Güzelyali and Karataş. Prior to the dedication of Shaʿar ha-Shamayim, two other buildings in Alsancak were used as synagogues to fulfill the religious nee…

Shabazi, Shalom

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Yosef Tobi
Born in 1619 in Najd al-Walīd near Taʿizz in southern Yemen, Shalom Shabazī was  Yemen’s greatest Jewish poet and is popularly referred to as Mori Sālim(Rabbi or Master). Many members of his family (the Mashta) were scholars and poets, including his father,  Joseph ben Avigad, who was also a leader of the local Jewish community, and Joseph ben Israel (see below). By profession, Shabazī was a weaver, and he lived in poverty in his youth. He studied with local rabbis, including his relative Israel Safra, but also spent time in Sanʿa, wher…

Shabbetay, Hezekiah

(388 words)

Author(s): Yaron Harel
The rabbinical scholar and jurist Hezekiah ben Gabriel Joshua Shabbetay was born in Salonica in 1862. Some years later, his family emigrated to Jerusalem. Over the years he was sent abroad on several missions as a rabbinical emissary ( meshullaḥ or shadar) to collect contributions for the academies of Jerusalem and Hebron. Between 1900 and 1904, he served as chief rabbi of Jaffa. He then became chief rabbi of Tripoli (Libya), but in 1908 was appointed chief rabbi of the Jewish community of Aleppo. He was selected for this post because he seemed well suited to deal with …

Shabbetay Ṣevi

(3,363 words)

Author(s): Jacob Barnai
Shabbetay Ṣevi (Sabbatai Ṣevi, Shabbetay Tzvi, 1626–1676) was born in Izmir (Smyrna) on August 1, 1626, which coincided with the ninth of Av, the fast-day in remembrance of the destruction of the Temple, and also, according to tradition, the day on which the messiah will be born. Shabbetay’s father had moved with his family to Izmir from Greece. The family was apparently Romaniot by origin. Shabbetay had two brothers, Elijah and Joseph. Izmir, a flourishing city in Hellenistic times (traditionally held to be Homer’s birthplace), was reduced to a small town under the…

Shabbetay (Shabbati), Ḥayyim

(327 words)

Author(s): Yaron Ben Naeh
Ḥayyim ben Moses Shabbetay(Shabbati) was a noted rabbi of Salonica from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. Born around 1555, Shabbetay (known also by the Hebrew acronym Maharḥash) was the pupil of Aaron ben Joseph Sasson (1550 or 1555–1626) and of Solomon ben Abraham ha-Kohen (Maharshakh, d. 1602). By the last decade of the sixteenth century, Shabbetay had already achieved recognition as one of the leading rabbinical scholars in Salonica. In 1615, he succeeded Samuel Florentin as marbiṣ tora (teacher of Torah study), i.e., rabbi, of the Qahal Qadosh Shalom; succeede…

Shabīb ben Jacob

(416 words)

Author(s): Michael G. Wechsler
Shabīb ben Jacob was a resident of Qayrawān, Ifrīqiya (Tunisia), in the latter half of the ninth century, and is one of five named individuals attested by documents from the Cairo Geniza as spiritual-halakhic authorities (i.e., bearers of the title rav and rabbana) of Qayrawān’s Jewish community in that century (the others being Nathan ben Ḥananiah/Ḥanina, Judah ben Saul, Ḥonay, and Samuel). Shabīb is mentioned by Sherira Gaon as the recipient of a responsum written in 870 by Amram ben Sheshna Gaon (Lewin, p. 70, l. 1) and is also the a…
Date: 2015-09-03

Shacarē Ṣiyyon Society (Mogador/Essaouira)

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Essaouira (Mogador) Norman A. Stillman

Shāhīn-i Shīrāzī, Mowlānā

(369 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Mowlānā Shāhīn-i Shīrāzī (Our Master the Royal Falcon of Shiraz) was the earliest and most accomplished poet of the Judeo-Persian literary tradition. His name is most likely a takhalluṣ (Ar. pen name). In a panegyric dedicated to the Īl-khānid ruler Abū Saʿīd (1316–1335), Shāhīn reveals that he lived during the reign of this monarch. Thus he may have been a near-contemporary of Ḥafiż (d. 1389), Iran’s greatest lyrical poet, who also hailed from Shiraz. There is some doubt, however, about whether Shāhīn was originally from Shiraz. The seventeenth-century Judeo-Persian chronicler Bābāī…

Shāhzada va Ṣūfī

(381 words)

Author(s): Dalia Yasharpour
Ancient Sanskrit stories of the life of Prince Siddhārtha described how he abandoned his life as a prince to eventually become Gautama Buddha. As the stories circulated over the course of centuries and were rendered in many different languages, the figure of a wise man who guided the prince’s spiritual development became a prominent element. The basic framework of the stories was constant—a prince, with the guidance of a wise man, chooses a life of enlightenment and piety over worldly wealth and power—but the various…

Shalom Gamliel (Salīm Saʿīd al-Jamal)

(332 words)

Author(s): Mark Wagner
Shalom Gamliel (Salīm Saʿīd al-Jamal) was born in the city of Sanʿa in Yemen in 1907. By profession he was a merchant selling luxury goods, including perfume and alcohol, to the city’s Muslim elite, but his close ties with Yemen’s ruling family, the house of Ḥamīd al-Dīn, combined with his knowledge of formal Arabic and Yemen’s Islamic legal system, enabled him to act as a mediator in disputes involving Jews and Muslims. In effect, if not in intent, Gamliel was a Jewish lawyer working within the shariʿ a system. Like *Sālim Manṣūra (Shalom Mantzura) and Ṣāliḥ *al-Ẓāhirī (Zadok Yit…

Shalom, Isaac

(460 words)

Author(s): Sarina Roffé
Born in 1886 in Aleppo, Syria, Isaac Shalom immigrated to Manhattan's Lower East Side in 1910, starting as a textile peddler like many of his fellow countrymen. A successful salesman, he soon became a supplier to other Syrian Jewish immigrants. At the end of World War I, when immigration to the United States reopened, he was able to send for his family. He married Alice Chabot and founded I. Shalom & Co., which soon became the leading manufacturer of men's and women's handkerchiefs and accessories. As New York's Syrian Jewish community prospered, moving across the river from Manh…

Shami, Yitzḥaq

(741 words)

Author(s): Rachel Simon
Born in Hebron, Yitzḥaq Shami (1888–1949) was the son of Eliyahu Sarwi, a textile merchant from Damascus who was known as ash-Shami (“the Damascene”).  As a adult he adopted his father’s sobriquet as his literary and legal surname. Shami grew up bilingual, speaking Arabic with his father and Ladino (see Judeo-Spanish) with his mother, a native of Hebron who belonged to the Sephardic Castel family. He became familiar with the daily life of the Arab villagers and Bedouins of the Hebron region because of his father’s b…

Shammas, Maurice

(353 words)

Author(s): Deborah Starr
Maurice Shammās, also known as Abū Farīd, is an Arabic poet, journalist, and dramatist who began his career in Egypt before settling in Israel. Shammās was born in 1930 to a Karaite family (see Karaism) in Cairo and was raised in the city’s old Jewish quarter, the Ḥārat al-Yahūd. His family spoke Arabic, as was common among members of the Karaite community of the ḥāra, and he was educated in Arabic-speaking schools. As a young man, he worked as a journalist for al-Shams, an Arabic Jewish weekly, and for   al-Kalīm,the biweekly Arabic newspaper of the Karaite community. As he describe…

Shamosh, Amnon

(585 words)

Author(s): Ori Kritz
Amnon Shamosh, celebrated Israeli author and poet, was born in Aleppo, Syria, in 1929. He was brought to prestate Israel at age eight and in 1947 was a founding member of Kibbutz Maʿayan Baruch, where he still lives. Shamosh graduated from Beit Berl Teachers College and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he studied linguistics and Hebrew and English literature. He taught at a regional high school and served as its principal from 1965 to 1967. He traveled to Europe and North Africa for the kibbutz movement to recruit ʿ olim (immigrants) and worked with UNESCO as a special envoy…

Shams (Cairo), al-

(282 words)

Author(s): Lital Levy
Al–Shams (The Sun), published in Cairo from 1934 to 1948, was the last Arabic-language Jewish newspaper in Egypt. It was owned, edited, and largely written by Sa‘d (Sa‘adiya) Ya‘qūb Malkī, who previously had edited the Arabic edition of Israël ( Isrā’īl) and saw himself as continuing its mission with al–Shams. Seeking to attract both Jewish and non-Jewish readers, al-Shams promoted a reformist program that encompassed Egyptian Jewry, the Egyptian nation as a whole, and a broadly defined “East.” The paper’s content consisted of news of Egypt’s Jewish co…

Shanghai, China

(1,430 words)

Author(s): Maisie Meyer
Shanghai, the largest city and principal port of China, at the confluence of the Whangpoo (Huangpu) River (a branch of the Yangtze) and Woosung (Suzhou) Creek,  attracted Jews, among other foreigners, after it was opened to foreign trade by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 following the First Opium War. The city came to have a considerable community of Baghdadi Jews (in this context “Baghdadi” encompasses Arabic-speaking Jews from Baghdad, Basra, and other parts of the Ottoman Empire and from Cairo…


(378 words)

Author(s): Ari Ariel
The region of Sharʿab occupies a highland plateau lying approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) to the northwest of the city of Taʿizz in the north-central part of Taʿizz province in southern Yemen, Sharʿab is today one of Yemen’s most densely populated areas. It is made up of two districts: Sharʿab as-Salam and Sharʿab ar-Rawna. According to the 2004 Yemeni census, the former has a population of 146,650, and the latter has 186,955 inhabitants. Prior to the mid-twentieth century, the Sharʿab region was heavily populated by Jews. According to some estimates there were …

Sharʿabi, Abraham Shalom

(242 words)

Author(s): Pinchas Giller
Raphael Abraham Shalom Sharʿabi (1775–1827), known as the RA"Sh and as Rav Abraham Shalom Ḥasid (Heb. the saint) because of his piety, was the grandson of the influential kabbalist Shalom Sharʿabi and the son of Hezekiah Isaac Mizraḥi Sharʿabi. Abraham Shalom headed the Bet El yeshiva from 1808 until his death and was one of the first major redactors of the linguistic mysteries of the Bet El system of Kabbala. His Divre Shalom, a theoretical work that details the practices of the Bet El community, is still one of the most useful volumes in the library of that tradit…

Sharabi, Boaz

(563 words)

Author(s): Amy Horowitz
Yemeni Israeli singer, songwriter, and drummer Boaz Sharabi was born in the Kerem Ha-Temanim neighborhood of Tel Aviv on May 28, 1947, one of the ten children of parents who had emigrated from Yemen. A prolific artist on the Israeli popular music scene for over forty years, he has collaborated with some of Israel’s top composers and written for mainstream singers and films across the ethnic spectrum. Sharabi began playing drums as a child and performed with the Karmon dance troupe during the 1960s. In 1971, he recorded an English-language version of his composition Pamela. The song was b…

Shar'abi, Hezekiah Isaac Mizraḥi

(219 words)

Author(s): Pinchas Giller
Hezekiah Isaac Mizraḥi Sharʿabi (d. 1808), referred to by his acronym Ḥay be-Shemesh (lit. alive in the sun) was the only son of the legendary Yemenite kabbalist Shalom Sharʿabi and served as the fourth head of the Bet El yeshiva in Jerusalem. Although he was clearly an accomplished kabbalist, his main area of distinction was as a rabbinical judge (Heb. dayyan) on the court of Rav Mordechai ha-Levi, author of the Ma’amar Mordekhay (Mordechai's Composition) on the code of Jewish law. He composed the Me'ira Dakhya ("Pure Enlightening"; Constantinople, 1807) and two introductions t…

Sharʿabi, Shalom

(1,014 words)

Author(s): Yosef Tobi
The great kabbalist Shalom Sharʿabi was born in Sharʿab, Yemen, in 1720, was raised in Sanʿa, and died in Jerusalem in 1777. Known by the acronyms Rashash and Hashemesh (Shalom Mizraḥi Sharʿabi), Sharʿabi stands third in the hierarchy of  the Lurianic Kabbala after  Isaac Luria (the Ari) and the latter’s disciple Ḥayyim Vital, and he was thought to be a reincarnation of Luria. He probably acquired his erudition in Jewish scholarship, and especially in Kabbala, while still in Yemen. Although he is well known from authentic documentation, …

Sharḥ (pl. Shurūḥ)

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bible Translations Norman A. Stillman

Sha‘shū‘a, Salīm

(483 words)

Author(s): Reuven Snir
The Iraqi poet, writer, journalist, and jurist Salīm Murād Sha‘shū‘a was born in 1926 in Baghdad, where he was educated at the Alliance Israélite Universelle school, the Shammash School, and the Law College. He began writing and publishing poetry while practicing law as an attorney. In 1948, he started up   al-Murūj (The Valleys), an Arabic literary and social journal, but managed to publish only one issue. In 1950, he was imprisoned on the charge of spreading Zionist propaganda. The following year he emigrated to Israel. The poetry Sha‘shū‘a wrote in his new home was permeated with Zionist…

Shas Party

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Avi Picard
A political and social movement in Israel, Shas grew from a local party participating in Jerusalem municipal elections in 1983 to a national party running candidates for the Knesset in 1984. Its emergence and success were made possible by the neglect of the Sephardi/Mizraḥi ultra-Orthodox (Heb. ḥaredi) community by the primary ultra-Orthodox party, Agudat Yisrael. The supreme authority of Shas is vested in its religious leadership. At first this was provided by a rabbinical council under the presidency of Ovadia Yosef, but in time he became the sole leader of the movement,…

Shā’ūl, Anwar  

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Reuven Snir
Anwar Shāʾūl(1904–1984) was an Iraqi poet, short story writer, playwright, journalist, lexicographer, and translator. His grandfather on his mother’s side was Hermann Rosenfeld, an Austrian tailor who settled in Baghdad in 1850 and became active in Jewish communal affairs, especially as a forceful advocate of the Alliance Israélite Universelle. On his father’s side, he was related to the distinguished Sassoon family, one member of which, Sheikh Sassoon ben Ṣāliḥ (1750–1830), was the nasi (head) of the Jewish community in Baghdad for almost forty years. Shāʾūl was born in Hilla …

Shaul, Moshe

(283 words)

Author(s): D Gershon Lewental
Moshe Shaul (b. 1929) is a journalist whose career has been devoted to the preservation and propagation of the Judeo-Spanish cultural heritage. Born in Izmir (Smyrna) in 1929, he immigrated to Israel in 1949, where he joined the Ladino department of Kol Israel(Voice of Israel) broadcasting in 1954. In 1959, he graduated from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem with degrees in sociology and political science. From 1977 to 1994, Shaul headed the Ladino department at Kol Israel. In 1979, he founded Aki Yerushalaim: Revista Kulturala Djudeo-Espanyola as a supplement to his broadcast…

Shawwāṭ, Frajī

(480 words)

Author(s): Ephraim Hazan
Frajī (Farajī) Shawwāṭ was born in Fez in the second half of the sixteenth century. Like a number of other Moroccan rabbis, he migrated to Beja in Tunisia. He holds a unique place among the poets of Tunisia and certainly was that country’s finest Hebrew poet. His poetry was loved and distributed widely in Tunisia and throughout North Africa. The great majority of Shawwāṭ’s piyyuṭim (liturgical poems) deal with the theme of exile and redemption, a subject so central to his thought that poems on other topics make up only a sixth part of his oeuvre, and even th…

Shaykh al-ʿAfrīt (Rosio, Israel)

(290 words)

Author(s): Jacques Taïeb
Shaykh al-ʿAfrīt (Maestro Little Devil) was born in 1897 in Tunis and died on July 26, 1939 in Ariana, near the capital city and was buried in the Borgel Cemetery in Tunis. Born Israël Rosio Issirene to a Moroccan father and a Libyan mother, he was abandoned at a young age by his father, who returned to Morocco. He earned his nickname for his powerful voice and his mischievous wit. He was one of the leading Arabic singers in Tunis in the interwar period; he performed at Aḥmad Bey’s palace (r. 1929–1942) every Tuesday. He is said to have had a repertory of 480 songs. His…

Shayk al-yahud

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nagid Norman A. Stillman

Sheetrit, Meir

(704 words)

Author(s): Avi Picard
Meir Sheetrit was born in 1948 in the town of Ksar es-Souk (now Errachidia) in Morocco. His family immigrated to Israel in 1957 and was sent to the development town of Netivot adjacent to the Gaza Strip. They later moved to Yavne, another development town, in the Central Coastal Plain, where they lived in a maʿabara (transit camp). Sheetrit went to a public religious school and later studied at a religious youth village, graduating from high school at the age of sixteen. Due to his young age he was able to earn a degree in microbiology from Bar-Ilan…

Shemariah ben Elhanan

(828 words)

Author(s): Marina Rustow
Abū ʾl-Khayr Shemariah ben Elhanan was the leader of the Jews of Fustat from the 990s until his death in December 1011. He first became known to scholarship as one of the four captives in Abraham ibn Daʾud’s Book of Tradition (Heb. Sefer ha-Qabbala), three of whom established new centers of Torah study in Egypt, al-Andalus, and Ifrīqiya. According to Ibn Daʾud’s account, Shemariah was ransomed in Alexandria and later settled in Fustat, but in fact he was born there into a family of leaders of the local Babylonian Jewish community. Ibn Daʾud paints Shemariah as a link binding the Iraqi yeshivot…

Sherira Gaon

(505 words)

Author(s): Phillip Ackerman-Lieberman
Sherira Gaon (ca.906–1006) was a jurist descended from an exilarchic family who served as gaon of the Pumbedita yeshiva from 968 to 1004. Directly prior to his appointment, the Pumbedita academy had been substantially weakened by a schism that led to the short-lived founding of a breakaway faction by Nehemiah bar Kohen Ṣedeq. In addition, throughout this period, the Babylonian academies (see Yeshivot in Babylonia/Iraq) were losing much of their influence in the Jewish communities to the west thanks to the rise of houses of study (Heb. batte midrash) there. With the flow of financial …

Shiʽa and the Jews

(2,472 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
1. Historical Overview Jewish-Shīʽī interaction through history is still not well known despite significant advances in researching the subject. Scholars generally note that Shīʽī Muslims have tended to hold more severe attitudes than Sunnīs toward Jews and Judaism, but on closer investigation a considerable area of Judeo-Shīʽī “symbiosis” emerges. It sheds light on Jewish-Shīʽī relations especially during the first two centuries of Islam, the formative period of Shīʽism, supporting the view of tho…

Shikar, Shem Ṭov (Hoca Santo)

(262 words)

Author(s): Pamela Dorn Sezgin
Shem Ṭov Shikar (b. ca. 1840) was perhaps the most famous composer of Jewish liturgical song from Izmir (Smyrna). He was also known as Hoca Santo (Turk. hoca, teacher or master; Jud.-Sp. santo, equivalent to Shem Ṭov), Şikẩr Efendi, Şemtov Şikẩr, and Izmirli (Turk. from Izmir) Hoca Santo.  About 150 compositions in the maqām system of classical Turkish music are attributed to Shikar, but few of these works were published. Apart from an opus transcribed by Isaac Algazi, most of these works existed in oral traditionby the late twentieth century. They were lovingly preserved by Sh…

Shīna, Salmān

(372 words)

Author(s): Orit Bashkin
Salmān Shīna(1899–1978) was an Iraqi lawyer, member of parliament, and journalist. Educated at the Alliance Israélite Universelle school in Baghdad (established 1864), Shīna served as a translator for the Ottoman forces during World War I. He was captured by the British in 1917 and spent over a year in India as a prisoner of war. Years later, in the independent Iraqi state and in Israel, Shīna, unlike many Arab nationalists of the time, would recall the positive role the Ottoman Empire had played with respect to Middle Eastern Jewry. In Iraq, Shīna became the secretary of a pro-Zion…

Shindukh Family

(858 words)

Author(s): Zvi Zohar
The Shindukh family were communal leaders, rabbinic scholars, and kabbalists in Baghdad from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. The etymology of the family name is unclear; in (rather obscure) literary Arabic, shindakh means “gratuity,” while shundukh/shundakh means either “tall and powerful,” “lion,” or “repast upon completion of a journey or building.” As a Jewish surname, Shindukh first appears in seventeenth-century Baghdad. (There is an Iraqi Arab tribe named al-Shandūkh [pl. al-Shanādikha], and it is not unknown for Je…


(1,417 words)

Author(s): Haideh Sahim
Situated at the foot of the Zagros Mountains, Shiraz (Pers. Shīrāz) is the capital of the Iranian province of Fars. References in the Bible and the Apocrypha suggest the possibility that Jews were present in the Achaemenid capitals, Persepolis and Pasargadae, both situated near present-day Shiraz. During the early Islamic period, when Shiraz became a provincial capital, the Jews of Fars were more numerous than any other minority except the Zoroastrians. This may have been because at that time Shiraz was the hub of several important trade routes, and the Jews were engaged in inter…

Shirot ve-Tishbaḥot (Dönme Hymns)

(1,716 words)

Author(s): Hadar Feldman Samet
Shirot ve Tishbahot (Heb. Songs and Praises) is the common term used to refer to devotional songs of the Sabbatean Ma’aminim (Heb. Believers/Faithful) – known as the Dönme (Turk. Turncoats) – the disciples of the Jewish messianic pretender Shabbetay Ṣevi (1626–1676). In the years after the latter’s conversion to Islam in 1666, his adherents also embraced Islam and created clandestine messianic communities of converts. Devotional singing was a dominant practice of the Ma’aminim and their song cor…

Shīrvānī, Moses (Mūsā) ben Aaron ben Sheʾerit

(195 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Moses (Mūsā) ben Aaron ben Sheʾerit Shīrvānī compiled a Hebrew/Aramaic–Persian dictionary in 1459 in Shirvan (today in Azerbaijan). Shīrvānī’s dictionary is known as the Agron (Heb. glossary, lexicon), a title undoubtedly derived from Saʿadya Gaon’s (d. 942) famous double-dictionary of the same name. Intended as an aid to Bible study, the Agron includes vocabulary from the Bible and is largely organized according to Hebrew roots and nouns. It is known only from manuscripts, but all of the existing ones are incomplete, covering only the entries from the letter yod (tenth in the Hebr…

Shofet, Yedidya

(585 words)

Author(s): Orly R. Rahimiyan
Yedidya Shofet (1908–2005), a leading religious authority of Iranian Jewry, hailed from Kashan and was descended from twelve generations of rabbis there. His first teacher of Torah and Jewish religious subjects was his father, Rabbi David Shofet. Later, he studied in the maktab (Ar./Pers. Jewish religious school, equivalent to Heb. ḥeder; see Kuttāb) with Mullāh Matanya, Mullāh Yeḥezqel Nāmrudī, Ḥakham Rofeh, and Ḥakham Shemuel Yerushalmi, the latter two of whom were emissaries (Heb. shadarim) from Jerusalem. Following elementary school, he studied in Mullāh Yeḥezqel’s bet mi…


(6 words)

Author(s): Phillip Ackerman-Lieberman
see Solal Phillip Ackerman-Lieberman

Sholal (Solal), Isaac ha-Kohen

(470 words)

Author(s): Abraham David
Isaac ha-Kohen Sholal (d. 1524) was the last Egyptian nagid. Although of Spanish ancestry, his direct forebears lived in Tlemcen from the early fifteenth century and perhaps even earlier. Sholal himself resided in Egypt in the latter half of the fifteenth century, where he engaged in the grain trade and other pursuits. In 1502, he inherited the office of nagid from his uncle/brother-in-law Jonathan (Nathan) Sholal, and he served in this capacity until the Ottoman conquest in 1517, which saw the termination of the nagidate. Various sources indicate that Sholal, during his tenure…

Sholal (Solal), Nathan (Jonathan) ha-Kohen

(304 words)

Author(s): Abraham David
Nathan (Jonathan) ha-Kohen Sholal ben Ḥayyim(1437–1502) was one of the last incumbents of the office of nagid (pl. negidim) in Egypt. Born in Tlemcen into a family of Talmud scholars, Sholal emigrated to Italy and from there to Palestine, settling in Jerusalem before 1471. Heavy taxation and oppression by the high-handed community elders led many Jews to leave Jerusalem. One of them was Nathan Sholal, who went to Egypt sometime around or after 1481. Around 1484 he was appointed nagid of the Jewish community in Egypt, recognized as such by…


(6 words)

Author(s): Phillip Ackerman-Lieberman
see Solal Phillip Ackerman-Lieberman

Shumla (Shumen)

(461 words)

Author(s): Aksel Erbahar
Shumla (Ott. Turk. Shumla and Shumnu; Bulg. Shumen, renamed Kolarovgrad from 1950 to 1965), is an ancient city in northeastern Bulgaria. Conquered by Sultan Murad I (r. ca. 1360–1389) in 1388, Shumla was destroyed completely in 1444 and a new town with the same name was constructed in its present location. Because of its close proximity to Russia, the city was frequently attacked by the Russians and thus had to be fortified. Beginning in the eighteenth century, the Ottomans transformed Shumla into a military center, which created many jobs and attracted migrants from other are…

Sidi Bel Abbès

(646 words)

Author(s): Richard Ayoun
Sidi Bel-Abbès (Ar. Sīdī Bil-ʿAbbās), located at an altitude of 470 meters (1,542 feet), is a city in northwestern Algeria, on the Mekerra River, in the center of the vast plain between Jebel Tessala in the north and the Daya Mountains in the south. Initially the site of a French military outpost during the conquest of Algeria, the town of Sidi Bel-Abbès was established in 1849 and remained an important base for the Foreign Legion. Jews from Oran, Tlemcen, and Mascara began to settle there in 1851. There was also a sizable migration of Jews from Morocco, especially fro…

Sidi Rahhal

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman


(1,062 words)

Author(s): Kirsten Schulze
The Jews of the Lebanese town of Sidon (Ar. Ṣaydā) believed that their community dated back to the first arrival of Israelites in the area in 1000 B.C.E. and their synagogue to the period of the Second Temple. By the beginning of the common era there were many Jews living in Sidon, and the city had been beautified by Herod (Josephus, Jewish Wars 1:422; see also Acts 12:20). Their numbers were so considerable that the local pagans were afraid to attack them in 66, when the Jews in other Greco-Syrian towns were massacred ( Jewish Wars 2:479). Although there is little information in the source…

Sifre Miṣvot

(4,810 words)

Author(s): Judith Olszowy-Schlanger | Y. Zvi Stampfer
1.  Rabbanite Sifre Miṣvot Works in the genre known as books of precepts (Heb. sifre miṣvot) in medieval Hebrew and Judeo-Arabic literature enumerate the precepts of the Torah and sort them according to various methods and diverse categories. Jewish poets in Palestine in late Antiquity began to develop this genre for liturgical purposes. During the Islamic period, it developed further in the parallel channels of liturgy and monograph. Medieval precept books were monographs that dealt with juridical questions b…
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