Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

Get access Subject: Jewish Studies
Executive Editor: Norman A. Stillman

The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online (EJIW) is the first cohesive and discreet reference work which covers the Jews of Muslim lands particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods. The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online is updated with newly commissioned articles, illustrations, multimedia, and primary source material. 

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S (schools - Seder ‘Aqedat Yiṣḥaq (poetry compilation))

(1,212 words)

schools  in Algeria, Algeria, Tlemcen   French, Haskala Movement, Oran  of B’nai B’rith, B'nai B'rith  in Egypt   Alexandria, Aghion Family    secondary, Egypt   Cairo, Karaite, Karaism   French, Egypt   missionary, Egypt   private, Egypt   Zionist, Bar Kokhba Society (Cairo)  in France, France, Ozar Hatorah   Paris, École Normale Israélite Orientale, Paris    Springer Institute, Confino, Albert   public schools, Jewish participation in, Algeria  in Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar  in Greece   Rhodes, Rhodes   Salonica, Ottoman Empire, Salonica (Thessalonik…

S (Seder ha-Dorot (Order of the Generations, Ibn Danan) - Ṣemiḥat ha-Qehilla ha-Yehudit be-Arṣot ha-Islam: Qayrawan, 800–1057 (Ben-Sasson))

(2,801 words)

Seder ha-Dorot (Order of the Generations, Ibn Danan), Ibn Abītūr, Joseph ben Isaac  on Maimonides family, Maimon ben Joseph ha-Dayyan Seder ha-Dorot (Order of the Generations, Khalfon), Khalfon, Abraham Seder Eliyahu, Seder Eliyahu Seder Eliyahu Zuṭṭa (The Minor Order of Elijah, Capsali), Greece (pre-1824), Capsali, Elijah, Crete Seder Leyl Pesaḥ (The Order of Passover Eve, Melammed ha-Kohen), Melammed ha-Kohen, Raḥamim Seder ‘Olam Zuṭa,Palestine, Bustanay (Ḥaninay) ben Kafnay Seder Rav ‘Amram Gaon (Amram ben Sheshna), Al-Andalus, Gaon and Gaonate, Prayer and Litu…

S (semikha (rabbinical ordination) - Sephardization)

(1,490 words)

semikha (rabbinical ordination), Berab, Jacob, Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium, Shiʽa and the Jews  cessation of, Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium  granting of, Berab, Jacob, Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium, Curiel, Israel ben Me'ir di  renewal of, Berab, Jacob, Caro, Joseph Ben Ephraim, Ottoman Empire, Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium, Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium   and Shulḥan ‘Arukh,Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium seminaries seeyeshivot Semitic la…

S (Sephiha, Haïm-Vidal - Shabbetay Ṣevi: Sabbatean movement)

(1,635 words)

Sephiha, Haïm-Vidal, Belgium Ṣeqilī, Jacob ben Hananel, Aliya to Palestine before Zionism Serah bat Asher, Serah bat Asher  cave and synagogue (Isfahan), Cycle of the Jewish Year in Iran, Serah bat Asher   Hebrew inscriptions found at, Serah bat Asher   Jewish pilgrimage to, Serah bat Asher, Serah bat Asher, Serah bat Asher   Muslim pilgrimage to, Serah bat Asher  legends on, Serah bat Asher Serbia  anti-Jewish measures in, Balkans, Serbia, Serbia  anti-Jewish violence in, Balkans  independence of, Ottoman Empire, Serbia, Serbia  Jews in, Belgrade, Serbia   artisans, Serbia   As…

S (Shabīb ben Jacob - Shevut Yehuda (The Captivity of Judah, Elbaz))

(2,015 words)

Shabīb ben Jacob, Shabīb ben Jacob  correspondence of, Shabīb ben Jacob  responsa addressed to, Shabīb ben Jacob Shabistarī, Ḥujjat al-Islam Muḥammad Mujtahid, Iran/Persia shadarim see emissaries Shaf ve-Yativ Synagogue (Nehardea), Synagogues in the Islamic World Shāfī‘ī school of Islam, in Yemen, Yemen Shafik, Viola, Cinema, Arabic, Jews in Shāh-Nāma (Book of Kings, Firdowsī), Ardashīr-nāma, Bereshit-nāma ('The Book of Genesis'), Fatḥ-nāma  influence of, ʿImrani, Judeo-Persian Literature al-Shahāma (theater, Tunisia), Messika, Ḥabiba Shaḥar Avaqqeshkha, Ṣuri u-Mi…

S (Shfeya Institute for Orphans (Jerusalem) - Shuroo (film, Savi Gabizon))

(1,837 words)

Shfeya Institute for Orphans (Jerusalem), Zefira, Bracha Shiblak, Abbas, Academic Study of Islamicate Jewry shiddukhin (betrothal) ceremonies seeengagements, ceremonies Shifā’ (Ibn Sīnā), influence of, Abū ʾl-Barakāt al-Baghdādī al-Shiḥrī, Bā Faqīh, Messianism Shī‘ī Islam  anti-Jewish and anti-Christian writings of, Maḥḍar al Shuhūd fῑ Radd al-Yahūd  cities of importance in   Mashhad, Nādir Shāh   Qum, Qum(m)  on dhimmi status of non-Muslim religions, Majlisῑ, Muḥammad Bāqir, al-, Shiʽa and the Jews, Shiʽa and the Jews, Shiʽa and the Jews, Mamālik al-Imām  differences w…

S (shurūḥ (Judeo-Arabic translations of religious texts) - Sklare, David)

(1,370 words)

shurūḥ (Judeo-Arabic translations of religious texts), Berdugo, Raphael ben Mordechai, Judeo-Arabic - History and Linguistic Description, Literature, Judeo-Arabic, Bible Translations, Bible Translations, Bible Translations  of Ben Sūsān, Literature, Judeo-Arabic, Bible Translations  educational purposes of, Literature, Judeo-Arabic, Bible Translations  oral development of, Literature, Judeo-Arabic shurūḥ ’alfāẓ (Judeo-Arabic glossaries), Literature, Judeo-Arabic, Translations of Rabbinic Sources into Arabic, Bible Translations  etymological explanat…

S (Skopje (Macedonia) - Soncino-Gesellschaft der Freunde des jⁿdischen Buches)

(1,550 words)

Skopje (Macedonia)  Austrian rule of, Skopje (Üsküb)  center of commerce, Skopje (Üsküb)   dayyanim of, Skopje (Üsküb)  Jewish community in, Serbia, Skopje (Üsküb)   cemetery, Skopje (Üsküb)   Jewish quarters, Skopje (Üsküb), Skopje (Üsküb)   leadership of, Skopje (Üsküb)   merchants/businessmen, Skopje (Üsküb)   rabbis of, Levi (Le-Vet Ha-Levi) Family, Salonica, Skopje (Üsküb), Skopje (Üsküb), Skopje (Üsküb)   Romaniots, Skopje (Üsküb)   Sabbatean movement in, Skopje (Üsküb)   schools, Skopje (Üsküb), Skopje (Üsküb)   Sephardim, Skopje (Üsküb)   synagogues, Sko…

S (Song of Songs - Special Committee for the Relief of Jews in Palestine)

(1,142 words)

Song of Songs  allegorical use of, in poetry, Ibn Mar Saul, Levi ben Isaac  commentaries on, Berdugo, Raphael ben Mordechai   by Akrish (16th cent.), Akrish, Isaac ben Abraham   by Dayan, Moses, Dayan Family, Dayan Family   by Ibn ‘Aqnīn, Ibn ʿAqnīn, Joseph ben Judah ben Jacob, Ibn ʿAqnīn, Joseph ben Judah ben Jacob, Palermo and Sicily, Bible Exegesis, Bible Exegesis, Bible Exegesis   by Maimonides, Moses, Bible Exegesis   midrashic, Bible Exegesis   by Ha-Rofe, Jacob ben Joseph ha-Rofeh ‘The Song of the Vine’ ( piyyuṭ, Moses ben Asher), Hebrew Poetry in the Medieval Islamic…

S (spellings - Sura yeshiva: students of)

(1,501 words)

spellings  of Arabic, Judeo-Arabic - History and Linguistic Description  of Judeo-Arabic, Literature, Judeo-Arabic   classical, Bible Translations   dialects, Literature, Judeo-Arabic   nonclassical, Literature, Judeo-Arabic   phonetic, Bible Translations  of Judeo-Spanish dialects, Judeo-Spanish  of Karaite Arabic transcriptions of Hebrew texts, Transcribed Hebrew texts  Masoretic notes on, Grammar and Masora Sperco, Will, Le Journal d’Orient spices, trade, Jewish involvement in, Long-Distance Trade Spielberg, Steven, Elmaleh, Gad spinning, by women, Te…

S (s-slaghut (code language of Jewish traders) - Ṣafenat Pa‘ne’aḥ Sefer Ṣafenat Pa‘ne’aḥ)

(1,697 words)

s-slaghut (code language of Jewish traders), Lashoniyya, Talashont, Taqollit Saada, Charles, Sfax Saâda la marocaine (Rhaïs), Francophone Maghrebi Jewish Literature Saadi/Sa‘di dynasty (Morocco), Marrakesh, Ibn Mishʿal, Aaron, Tarudant Saadoun, Yaakov, Saadoun, Yaakov Saadoun family, Tozeur Sa‘adya ben David of Aden, Ben Asher, Aaron (Abū Saʿīd Hārūn) ben Moses Sa‘adya ben Judah, Saʿadya ben Judah Sa‘adya al-Fayyūmī seeSa‘adya Gaon Sa‘adya Gaon (Sa‘adya ben Joseph/Sa‘adya al-Fayyūmī), Gaon and Gaonate, Hamon, Moses, Egypt, Israeli, Isaac ben Solomon, …

S (Surākh al-Barī’ fī Būq al-Ḥurriyya (The Call of the Innocent with the Trumpet of Freedom, Fāris) - synagogues: Yarim)

(2,133 words)

Surākh al-Barī’ fī Būq al-Ḥurriyya (The Call of the Innocent with the Trumpet of Freedom, Fāris), Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism Surat (India), Jewish community in, Trading Network Ṣurat ha-Areṣ (The Form of the World, Bar Ḥiyya), Science (Medieval) Ṣurat ha-Bayit (Form of the House, Joseph ben Moses di Ṭrani the Elder), Ṭrani (Miṭrani), Joseph ben Moses di, the Elder Ṣurat ha-‘Olam (The Form of the World, Ibn Laṭīf), Ibn Laṭīf, Isaac Ṣūrat Ṭibq al-‘Asl (Exact Copy, short story, Bilbūl), Bilbūl, Yaʿqūb (Lev) Süreyya, Mehmet, Jacopo of Gaeta (Hekim Yakub) sürgün (forced mi…

Staraselski, Albert

(300 words)

Author(s): Ovadia Yeroushalmy
Albert Staraselski was born in 1903 in Cairo into a family that had emigrated from Russia to Palestine before making its way to Egypt at the end of the nineteenth century. From an early age, he wrote for the French-language Jewish press in Egypt, often using his nickname, Stara, as a pseudonym. In the 1920s and 1930s, he was considered one of the most colorful of Egypt’s Jewish journalists. In 1923, he went to France, where he joined the  Zionist movement and became the secretary and right-hand man to Zeʾev Jabotinsky (1880–1940), the founder of Revisionist Zionism. Upon his return to Egy…

S (The Synagogues of Turkey (Güleryüz) - Szold, Henrietta)

(545 words)

The Synagogues of Turkey (Güleryüz), Güleryüz, Naim Avigdor “Synopsis of a Conversation” (poem, Biton), Biton, Erez Syr Darya region (Russia), Tashkent Syracuse, Jewish community in, Palermo and Sicily Syria, Syria  Abbasid rule of, Syria, Syria  administrative districts of, Syria  anti-French riots in, Syria  anti-Jewish measures in, Syria, Syria  anti-Jewish violence, Syria  antisemitism in, in Mamlūk period, Syria, Syria  Arab nationalism in, Syria  Arabic literature in, Arabic Literature (Modern), Jewish Writers in  Ayyubid rule of, Syria, Syria  blood libel cases …

Stillman, Yedida Kalfon

(873 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Yedida Kalfon Stillman (née Messodi Khalfon-Poney), world-renowned scholar of Islamic and Jewish culture, was born in the mellah of Fez, Morocco, on April 8, 1946. At age five, she immigrated to Israel with her large family, spending the first two years in a transit camp ( maʿabara) tent. The family hebraicized her name to Yedida. She grew up in the overcrowded, prefabricated housing of the Katamonim section of Jerusalem, a neighborhood overwhelmingly populated by Jews from Arab countries. There she developed her talent for languages, picking up more than a s…

Stroumsa, Vitalis

(235 words)

Author(s): Aksel Erbahar
Vitalis (also Vitali) Stroumsa, born in Salonica at an unknown date in the second half of the nineteenth century, was a prominent Jewish political figure in Salonica and then in Istanbul around the beginning of the twentieth century. He studied at the National School of Agriculture in Montpellier, France, where an essay he wrote on viticulture was published in 1886. Stroumsa later became the director of the École Pratique in Salonica, inspector of agriculture in Salonica and Kosovo, and secretary general of the Financial Commission of Salonica, Kosovo, and Monastir.             Follo…

Struma Affair

(245 words)

Author(s): İlker Aytürk
The Struma was a ship chartered by a group of 769 Romanian Jews in 1941 to take them to Mandatory Palestine. Although not at all seaworthy, the Struma sailed from Constanza on  December 12, 1941. Three days later its engine died and it was towed to Istanbul. None of the passengers had permits to enter Turkey, and only a handful had British visas (expired) for Palestine. The Turkish authorities refused to let the passengers disembark and rejected proposals by Jewish organizations to move them to Jewish-funded camps on Turkish soil. Protracte…

Suarès della Pegna Family

(555 words)

Author(s): Uri M. Kupferschmidt
The Suarès (Suarez) della Pegna family came from Livorno to Egypt at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The members of the Egyptian branch of the family retained their Italian citizenship in the years that followed but did not generally use the della Pegna extension, which designates Spanish origin. As one of the Jewish “grand families,” they have sometimes been called the Egyptian Rothschilds.       The founding father of the Egyptian branch of the family was Isaac Suarès, who began his career as a moneychanger (Ar. arrāf). With the transition to a modernizing economy, he…

Sudan

(1,088 words)

Author(s): Naḥem Ilan
Jews arrived in Sudan from Egypt in the second half of the nineteenth century, seeking freedom of religion and trade opportunities. In 1885, the mahdi entered Omdurman and declared it his capital. During his reign, all non-Muslims in Omdurman, including its eight Jewish families, were forced to accept Islam or die. In 1898, Sir Herbert Kitchener overpowered the mahdist state and established a joint British-Egyptian administration in Sudan. Most of the  Jewish families then reclaimed their Judaism. Their leader was Ben-Ṣiyyon Koshty (Hebron, 1842–Omdurman, 1918). In January …

Sulaymān, Shah

(393 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Shah Sulaymān (r. 1666-1694), the eighth ruler of the Iranian Ṣafavid dynasty, was originally crowned as Ṣafī II. He was the eldest son of Shāh ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-1666) and had been raised in the harem. Unprepared to reign, Sulaymān devoted himself to a life of pleasure that rendered Iran virtually bankrupt by 1668 at a time when the kingdom suffered from Uzbek and Cossack raids, earthquakes, draughts, and famines. He then endeavored to reform himself, becoming highly abstemious, even as his own revenues grew through higher taxes imposed on a suffering population. It was during this rei…
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