Encyclopedia of Medieval Pilgrimage

Get access Subject: History
Edited by: Larissa J. Taylor et al.

The Encyclopedia of Medieval Pilgrimage is an interdisciplinary reference work, giving wide coverage of the role of travel in medieval religious life. Dealing with the period 300-1500 A.D., it offers both basic data on as broad a range of European pilgrimage as possible and clearly written, self-contained introductions to the general questions of pilgrimage research.

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(1,391 words)

Author(s): Denise A. Stodola
The word "liminality" is etymologically rooted in the Latin word limen, meaning "doorway" or "threshold," and it is a key concept in anthropologist Victor Turner's analysis of rites of passage. Adapting and elaborating on Arnold van Gennep's earlier suggestion of a tripartite model for rites of passage, which he presents in The Rites of Passage (1960), Turner distinguishes between "liminal" and "liminoid" states, positing the latter for pilgrimage, although he does not explore how this analysis of pilgrimage might account for those persons who norm…

Limoges Enamels

(634 words)

Author(s): Melanie Hanan
The Limousin region of south-central France with the capital city Limoges was famous for high quality champlevé-enameled, gilt copper objects created in urban workshops and used for sacred and lay purposes. The creation of Limoges enamels -- referred to as opus lemovicense -- flowered between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and gradually declined in the fourteenth. Objects created included altar retables and frontals, chrismatories, censers, crosses, pyxes, tabernacles, eucharistic doves, ciboria, tombs, storage boxes (often calle…

Lincoln Cathedral

(865 words)

Author(s): Matthew Woodworth
Hugh of Avalon (1135/40-1200), bishop of Lincoln (1186-1200), was the most celebrated English saint after Thomas Becket. His cult was popular almost immediately upon his death and generated substantial revenues through the beginning of the fifteenth century. Pope Honorius III approved Hugh’s canonization in 1220 and stipulated the translation of his relics to a new, suitably magnificent setting. Beginning in 1256, the polygonal apse of Lincoln’s Gothic choir was demolished and replaced with a five-bay, rectangular extension known a…


(845 words)

Author(s): Andrea Dickens
Lindisfarne is a monastic community and seat of a bishop, originally founded by the monk Aiden, who came from Iona around 653, establishing the foundation at the behest of King Oswald. At the site a monastery was built on what is known as Holy Island -- really a spit of land and not a proper island -- approximately three km offshore in Northumberland. Holy Island is reachable via a narrow causeway accessible only at low tide. Island monasteries were a common feature of early medieval western mon…

Lintel on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

(426 words)

Author(s): Lisa Mahoney
The western lintel once above the main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (made after 1149 and now in the Rockefeller Museum) contains a figurative relief that recounts the events immediately preceding the Passion of Christ. The six scenes included are, from left to right: the Raising of Lazarus, the Petition of Mary and Martha, the Preparations for Passover (preparation of the Paschal Lamb in the lower portion of the scene and Christ giving instructions to two disciples in the upper p…

List of Keywords

(8,550 words)

Author(s): Larissa J. Taylor et al.
Keywords Articles Aachen Reliquaries of Charlemagne Aachen Charlemagne in Architecture Aachen Corona Chandeliers Abbey Montserrat Abbey of St Denis Legendary Presents of Charlemagne Abbey of St Denis Pilgrimage of Charlemagne Abbey of St Michael Anno, Shrine of Abbey of St Peter Edward the Confessor Abbot Saints Irish Pilgrimage Abortion Miracles of Pregnancy and Birth Abraham Mecca Abraham Monastic Pilgrimage Abraham Peregrini Absolution Papal Penitentiary Access Routes Access to Shrines Access to Relics Ambulatories Access to Shrines Ambulatories Access to Shrines …

List of Maps

(53 words)

Author(s): Larissa J. Taylor et al.
Map 1 Map of France. Western European historical routes to Santiago de Compostela Map 2 Map of Spain. Spanish historical routes to Santiago de Compostela from French crossing points Map 3 Map of Italy. The Via Francigena from Canterbury to Rome and vice versa Larissa J. Taylor et al.

List of Themes

(1,723 words)

Author(s): Larissa J. Taylor et al.
Themes Articles Architecture Access to Shrines Architecture Altarpieces Architecture Ambulatories Architecture Apses Architecture Archivolted Portals Architecture Bridges and Bridge Chapels Architecture Byzantine Pilgrimage Architecture Architecture Charlemagne in Architecture Architecture Chartreuse de Champmol Architecture Corona Chandeliers Architecture Crypts Architecture English Gothic Architecture Architecture English Romanesque Architecture Architecture French Gothic Architecture Architecture French Romanesque Architecture Architecture …

List of Themes and Editors

(129 words)

Author(s): Larissa J. Taylor et al.
Architecture Rita W. Tekippe University of West Georgia Church Architecture Rita W. Tekippe University of West Georgia Cult and Devotion Thomas Izbicki Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Cult Objects Rita W. Tekippe University of West Georgia Early Pilgrimage Larissa Taylor Colby College Economy Leigh Ann Craig Virginia Commonwealth University Experiences Leigh Ann Craig Virginia Commonwealth University Islamic Pilgrimage Leigh Ann Craig Virginia Commonwealth University Jewish Pilgrimage John B. Friedman University of Illinois Literature John B. Friedman Universi…

Literary Voice of the Pilgrim

(2,931 words)

Author(s): Anna Gottschall
The literary theory applied to perceptions and meanings of texts can be applied to devotional literature, poetry and medieval lyrics to add a new dimension to the impact of agency and the approach to cathedrals. Langland in The Vision of Piers Plowman objected to pilgrimage as a ritual that eased the conscience of the sinner without improving their moral quality. A thousand men gather together to find truth but no one knows where to look. At last they meet a pilgrim, wearing his pouch and scarf and carrying badges from the great sanctu…

Liturgy and Pilgrimage

(2,474 words)

Author(s): John F. Romano
The liturgy, the public worship of the Church, was an integral part of the experience of medieval pilgrimage. Its importance is nowhere better illustrated than the eleventh-century collection of miracles of Sainte Foy from Conques, France. The monks, having been offended by the pilgrims' rustic songs, barred the monastic choir to them. During the night the saint miraculously opened up the doors, allowing the pilgrims to pray to the relics of the saint until morning. The moral of the story was cl…