Religion Past and Present

Purchase Access
Subject: Religious Studies

Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see

Haarbeck, Theodor

(176 words)

Author(s): Printz, Markus
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1846, Neukirchen – Dec 3, 1923, Wuppertal), studied theology in Basel, Tübingen and Bonn (1846–1868), taught in Bern (1868–1883), was inspector of St. Chrischona pilgrims mission (1883–1890), director of the Johanneum, a school for evangelists in Wuppertal-Barmen (1890–1919), and chair of the Gnadauer Verband (1911–1919). He received the D.theol. in Bonn (1919). Influenced by Reformed Pietism and the Kingdom of God theology of J.T. Beck, Haarbeck was concerned with holding together the church and the Gemeinscha…

Haase, Theodor Karl

(191 words)

Author(s): Schwarz, Karl
[German Version] (Jul 14, 1834, Lviv [Ger. Lemberg], Ukraine – Mar 27, 1909, Cieszyn/Český Těšín [Ger. Teschen], Poland/Czech Republic), Protestant theologian. After studying theology and philosophy in Vienna, Göttingen, Rostock (Dr.phil. 1856) and Berlin, he pastored in Bielitz (1859–1876) and Teschen …

Habakkuk/Book of Habakkuk

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart
[German Version] I. The Prophet – II. The Book – III. Effective History I. The Prophet The prophet Habakkuk lived in Jerusalem around 600 bce. His name is Assyrian in origin and derives from the Akkadian term for a garden plant ( ḫabb[m]aqūqu). He is described as a cult prophet ( nabı̑) (1:1), which is confirmed by the fact that he receives the word in a cultic location (2:1–3). Whether, however, his critique of the social abuses caused by the political and economic elite of Judah was part of his function or contradicted it, must remain as op…

Habakkuk Commentary

(548 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran, 1QpHab, belongs to the genre of continuous pesharim (thus also “Habakkuk Pesher”), i.e. those exegeses of a prophetic or psalm text which in Qumran interpret entire biblical books or parts of them in terms of the history of the Qumran-Essene (Essenes) community (the

Haberkorn, Peter

(179 words)

Author(s): Matthias, Markus
[German Version] (May 9, 1604, Butzbach – Apr 5, 1676, Gießen), Lutheran theologian. Orphaned in 1617, Haberkorn came in 1620 to K. Dieterich at the gymasium in Ulm, studied primarily in Marburg (beginning in 1625, M.A. 1627), and, after teaching philosophy in Marburg (1632), he received the Dr.theol. and became court preacher in Darmstadt. After 1636 in Gießen, he was appointed superintendent in 1643 and in 1650 professor of theology and Hebrew in Gießen. Married to Elisabetha Katharina, the daug…

Häberlin, Paul

(203 words)

Author(s): Wegenast, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1878, Kesswil, Switzerland – Sep 29, 1960, Basel), studied theology in Basel, Göttingen and Berlin (graduation 1900) and philosophy in Göttingen and Basel (doctorate 1903). He taught in the gymnasium in Basel (1903), was director of the teacher's academy in Kreuzlingen (1904–1909), became assistant professor of philosophy in Basel (1908–1914), and professor of philosophy, education and psychology in Bern …

Habermann, Hans Max

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1885, Altona – Oct 30, 1944, Gifhorn). The son of a mastertailor initially became a bookseller in his home city. By reading the journal Der Kunstwart [custodian of art], he came into contact with the German social movement and the Deutsch-Nationaler Handlungsgehilfenverband (DHV, German National Association of Commercial Clerks), for which he began working in 1907. As editor of the Deutsche Handelswacht [German business watch] beginning in 1911, he advocated the superiority of models of corporative self-governance over against a soci…

Habermann, Johann

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Avenarius; Oct 8, 1516, Cheb [Ger. Eder], Czech Republic – Dec 5, 1590, Zeitz), who became a Lutheran between 1540 and 1542, served as pastor in several towns of Electoral Saxony (1564–1571 Falkenau, near Cheb). He was briefly a professor of theology (1571 Jena, 1576 Wittenberg); from 1576 to his death, he served as superintendent of the

Habit (Custom)

(855 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Konrad
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics Aristotle used the term ἕξις/ héxis (Lat. habitus) to describe the basic condition for people (and not merely their actions) to be ethically qualified, if humans are inherently able to regularly and willingly limit their affects in life's basic situations to the right, situation-appropriate degree (cf.

Habit (Religious Attire)

(178 words)

Author(s): Haering, Stephan
[German Version] …


(1,050 words)

Author(s): Baum, Wilhelm
[German Version] This important European ruling family was first known in th…


(5 words)

[German Version] Pharisees


(5 words)

[German Version] Baal/Baalat


(340 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Hades is the realm of the dead (Death) lying beneath the earth (DeathDeath) or at the end of the world, i.e. beyond the reach of the sun, where the capacity to see and to enjoy life thus lapses into a state of slumber “without seeing” (ἀίδης/ a-ídēs, aspirated only in the Attic dialect as ᾅδης/ hadēs). Escorted by Hermes the “guide of souls” (ψυχοπομπός/ psychopompós), the dead are separated from the living by the burial mound, a gate, a river (Hom. Od. XI). The personification of this realm is the god Hades who, though powerful, cannot be propitiated through offerings or prayers (Hom. Il. IX, 128; curse tablets). The realm of Hades is thus not godless (as the underworld of the OT) but devoid of a cultic dimension. It acquires repulsive and anguishing traits especially in Et…

Hadewijch of Antwerp

(212 words)

Author(s): Faesen, Rob
[German Version] lived in the first half of the 13th century in Brabant and, along with Beatrice of Nazareth (1200–1268), is considered the first female author from the Netherlands. Nothing is known of her life; she may have been the leader of a community of Beguines. She was acquainted with texts by Bernard of Clairvaux, William of Saint-Thierry and Richard of St. Victor. In her Strofische Gedichten (Strophic Poems), she transformed profane into mystical love lyrics. In addition, she wrote visions, letters and rhymed ¶ letters ( Mengeldichten). Her work exhibits parallels with mystical themes (Mysticism: III, 3) from the vitae of other contemporary mulieres religiosae; for her circle, Hadewijch offered descriptions and reflections on the experience of being taken up with Christ into Trinitarian love. Related…


(7 words)

[German Version] Pilgrimage/Places of Pilgrimage

Hadrian I, Pope

(296 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 9, 772 – Dec 25, 795). Hadrian was from the nobility in the city of Rome and soon broke with the pro-Lombard policy of his predecessor. He refused to anoint the sons of the deceased Frankish King Carloman and called Charlemagne to Rome, instead. He was received as patricius there at Easter 774 as the first Frankish king. Charlemagne took an oath of security, renewed the Donation of Pippin, and, thus, also promoted the extension of the Patrimonium Petri. In Rome, Hadrian christened Charlemagne's son Carloman Pippin and anointed him and Louis the Pious as kings. Hadrian, himself, strove for quasi-imperial status. By transferring the Collectio Dionysio-Hadriana and the Greg…

Hadrian IV, Pope

(208 words)

Author(s): Tanner, Norman
[German Version] Dec 4, 1154 – Sep 1, 1159 (Nicholas Breakspear; c. 1100, Abbot's Langley or St. Albans, England – Sep 1, 1159, Anagni, Italy) was the only Englishman to become pope. As a young man he moved to France; he became abbot of St. Rufus in Avignon in 1137; in 1149 he became cardinal, and from 1150 to 1153 he was papal legate in Scandinavia. He was elected pope …

Hadrian, Publius Aelius

(139 words)

Author(s): Klein, Richard
[German Version] Hadrian, Publius Aelius, Roman emperor (117–138). Hadrian, who was born in 76 ce…
▲   Back to top   ▲