Religion Past and Present

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Subject: Religious Studies

Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Taʾamey ha-Mitzvot

(6 words)

[German Version] Mitzvot


(383 words)

Author(s): Niemann, Hermann Michael
[German Version] overlooks the Valley of Jezreel from the south. It was fortified in EB II–III and MB II and was destroyed by Thutmoses III in 1468 bce and by Shishak c. 930 bce. The cuneiform archive at Taanach (unique in Palestine) mentions Rehov, Gur, Dothan, and Yibleam; Amanhatpa (possibly Amenhotep II) complains that the…

Tabernacle, Christian

(522 words)

Author(s): Ebenbauer, Peter | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. History of the Term A tabernacle (Lat. tabernaculum, “tent, hut”) is a receptacle containing the eucharistic bread and the vessel(s) holding it in Christian sacral buildings. The Vulgate uses the Latin word for the Old Testament tent of meeting and to represent the eschatological dwelling of God among mortals (Rev 21:3). In the Latin church, it became a technical term for the receptacle holding the reserved sacrament. In the Early Church, consecrated bread (Consecration) from the eucharistic celebration was kept in a small, specially designed pyx or chest (in the Orthodox Church: artophorion) to make it available to the sick and dying (Communion for the sick) outside the liturgy. As church architecture developed, the receptacle moved into a room adjoining the church, then gradually into the church itself. Originally built into the choir …

Tabernacle, Jewish

(289 words)

Author(s): Pola, Thomas
[German Version] (Heb. אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד/ʾ ōhel môʿēd, “tent of meeting [with Yahweh]”). The term embraces two conceptions of an Israelite tent sanctuary. In the non-Priestly epiphanic conception of Exod 33:7–11; Num 11:11ff.; 12:2ff.; Deut 31:14, presumably antedating P, the tent is set up outside the camp and Moses is allowed to enter it: the revelation on Sinai is ritualized. The conception of P (Pentateuch) in Exod 24:15–31:18; 35–40; Lev 8f. etc. pictures the taberna…

Tabernacles, Feast of (Sukkoth)

(10 words)

[German Version] Feasts and Festivals


(214 words)

Author(s): Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] (et-Tabgha, from Gk ἑπτάπηγον/ heptápēgon, “seven springs”) is the name of the littoral area of the Sea of Galilee (Galilee, Sea of) three km southwest of Capernaum. In New Testament times used for agriculture (Jos. Bell. III 519), from the mid-4th century on, it was associated with NT episodes (Mark 6:35–44 parr.; John 21) and Beatitudes (first attested for Egeria in Peter the Deacon, De locis sanctis 5.2f.), probably because it was easily accessible to pilgrims; an unbroken local Jewish Christian tradition is most unlikely. By 350 ce there was already a church there (15.5×9.5 m); in the late 5th century, there was an extensive construction that included the famous mosaic of the loaves and fishes. There are other Byzantine and post-Byzantine architectural remains in the vicinity. Two churches have been rebuilt (Church of the Primacy of St. Peter, 1933; Church of the Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes, 1980).…

Table of Nations

(8 words)

[German Version] Primordial History


(889 words)

Author(s): Kreinath, Jens
[German Version] The Polynesian word tabu (Eng. taboo) – along with mana and totem – is one of the few words of non-European origin to have developed into a key concept of religio-ethnological terminology during the 19th century. The history of the taboo concept not only mirrors the European approach to the problem of how to understand foreign thinking, but also sheds light on the cru…


(6 words)

[German Version] Hus, Jan/Hussites

Tabor, Mount

(182 words)

Author(s): Müller-Clemm, Julia
[German Version] mountain tapering to a high plateau (588 m) on the northeast edge of the Valley of Jezreel (Israel). Tabor appears in the Old Testament as a boundary marker between tribes (Josh 19:12, 22, 34), a military rallying point (Judg 4:6, 12, 14f.), and in the toponyms Chisloth-tabor and Aznoth-tabor (Josh 19:12, 34). A cultic significance of Tabor cannot be demonstrated from the biblical text (vague references in Ps 89:13*; Hos 5:1), archaeologic…

Tabula Peutingeriana

(7 words)

[German Version] Maps, Ancient

Tacitus, Publius Cornelius

(671 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert
[German Version] (c. 55 – after 116 ce). Life and works. Tacitus was praetor (88) and quindecimvir (?), suffect consul (97), and proconsul of the province of Asia (112/113). The biography of his father-in-law Gnaeus Julius Agricola (d. 93) combines the laudatio funebris (Dead, Cult of the: III) with an ethnography of Britain. The ethnography of the free, i.e. non-Roman (or not yet Roman) Germania (written around 100) draws a typecast and idealizing picture of an unspoiled primitive people and dangerous neighbor. His Dialogus de oratoribus (written around 105) di…


(303 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] (Ger. Takt, Fr. tact, Lat. tactus, “sense of touch, feeling, influence”) denotes the practical judgment that enables the accurate application of rules in concrete cases by drawing on the totality of the determinants present in the mind as universal rules of common sense or experience, without being elevated to the level of conscious scientific clarity (I. Kant). In a moral sense, tact is sensitivity to what is right and proper given the distinctive character of a…

Tafel, Johann Friedrich Immanuel

(162 words)

Author(s): Neugebauer-Wölk, Monika
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1796, Sulzbach am Kocher – Aug 29, 1863, Bad Ragaz), writer and university lecturer in Tübingen. Raised in an environment of Württemberg Pietism, he soon became a disciple of E. Swedenborg. After studying theology at Tübingen, he began translating Swedenborg’s works for the German public – after 1824 as university librarian. He considered Swedenborg to have been sent by God and to have been vouchsafed enlightenment by Christ himself. He challenged the aut…

Taffin, Jean

(176 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1529/1530, Doornik [Tournai] – Jul 15, 1602, Amsterdam), Reformed theologian. After studying with Calvin and T. Beza in Geneva from 1558 to 1560, he served churches in Aachen, Metz, Antwerp, Heidelberg, and (at the end of his life) in Amsterdam. In 1571 he played a leading role at the Dutch synod in Emden; from 1574 to 1583 he served as court chaplain to William of Orange. With his emphasis on the inward experience of grace and his …

Tagore, Rabīndranāth

(268 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (May 6, 1861, Calcutta – Aug 7, 1941, Shantiniketan, West Bengal), author, philosopher, educator, and social reformer. Tagore was the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize for literature (1913). He founded his school, Santiniketan (Abode of Peace), in 1901, and his Visva-Bharati (World University) in 1921; both were premised on the …


(1,345 words)

Author(s): Reiter, Florian C. | Jansen, Thomas | Wagner, Rudolf G.
[German Version] I. Taoism Taiping signifies “Great Peace,” “General Prosperity,” and “Universal Harmony.” The

Tait, Archibald Campbell

(167 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1811, Edinburgh – Dec 3, 1882, Episcopal Place at Addington), archbishop of Canterbury. Educated at Edinburgh and Oxford, Tait converted to the Church of England in 1830. Three years later, he was appointed tutor at Balliol College, Oxford. Though sympathetic to the aims of the Oxford Movement, in 1841 he joined in the public protest against Tract 90 (J.H. Newman). Talented and widely admired, Tait quickly advanced through a succession of clerical appointments, including headmaster of Rugby (1842, succeeding T. Arnold); …


(1,149 words)

Author(s): Clart, Philip
[German Version] I. General Facts


(413 words)

Author(s): Danzeglocke, Klaus
[German Version] The Communauté de Taizé in Burgundy was founded at Easter in 1949 by the Swiss Reformed theologian Roger Schutz (Frère Roger; 1915–2005), when seven brothers took vows to live a common life based on traditional monastic rules (celibacy, community of goods, obedience). Schutz had already bought a small, derelict house in Burgundian Taizé, in which people fleeing political and racial persecution found refuge. Beginn…
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