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The ethnic name Jaṭṭ enters historical record with three Brahmi inscriptions found on both sides of the upper Indus River in the vicinity of Chilas, within the erstwhile Gilgit Wazarat. All three inscriptions were left there by a notable, Jīvavarma the Jaṭṭ, who had been traveling along the left side of the Indus with his party before crossing over to the right bank. They are paleographically datable to the 4th or 5th century (von Hinüber, 1989, 47). We do not know which region of India Jīvavarm…

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Irfan Habib, “Jaṭṭs”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Sikhism Online, Edited by: Knut A. Jacobsen, Gurinder Mann Singh, Kristina Myrvold, Eleanor Nesbitt. Consulted online on 23 February 2020 <>
First published online: 2017
First print edition: 20170712

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