Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

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Author unknown
(183 words)

The Arabic letter of Leo III to ʿUmar II

Date of Birth: Unknown, perhaps early 8th c.

Place of Birth: Unknown

Date of Death: Unknown, perhaps late 8th c.

Place of Death: Unknown, perhaps Palestine or Sinai


Nothing is known of the actual author of an Arabic text purporting to be a letter of the Byzantine Emperor Leo III (r. 717-41) to the Umayyad Caliph ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (r. 717-20), other than what c…

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N. Swanson, Mark, “Author unknown”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500, General Editor David Thomas. Consulted online on 03 August 2020 <>
First published online: 2010

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