Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

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Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ
(380 words)


The pen-name Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ (‘Brethren of Purity’) was used by the otherwise anonymous authors of the compendium of 52 treatises on various disciplines entitled Rasāʾil ikhwān al-ṣafāʾ wa-khillān al-wafāʾ (‘Epistles of the brethren of purity and friends of loyalty’). The date of the Epistles is not known, but they must have been finished by the middle of the 10th century. Abū Ḥayyān al-Tawḥīdī, writing in the 980s, attributes…

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Ali-de-Unzaga, Omar, “Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500, General Editor David Thomas. Consulted online on 14 August 2020 <>
First published online: 2010

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