Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

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 Kitāb al-ārāʾ wa-l-diyānāt
(479 words)

Opinions and confessions

Abū Muḥammad al-Nawbakhtī

Date: Unknown; probably early 10th century

Original Language: Arabic


This work, which Ibn al-Nadīm (p. 225) says al-Nawbakhtī did not finish, has not survived. It is known through quotations contained in later works, particularly al-Masʿūdī and Ibn al-Jawzī (see Iqbāl, Khāndān-i Nawbakhtī, p. 139, and D. Thomas, Anti-Christian polemic in early Islam, Cambridge, 1992, p. 42, for references). These sho…

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Thomas, David, “ Kitāb al-ārāʾ wa-l-diyānāt”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500, General Editor David Thomas. Consulted online on 21 October 2019 <>
First published online: 2010

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