Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

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Representative of Nicephorus Phocas
(337 words)


Nothing is known about the author of a polemical poem that was sent on behalf of the Byzantine emperor to the Muslim caliph in the mid-10th century, apart from what can be gleaned from the poem itself. The poem names this caliph as al-Muṭīʿ (r. 946-74), and the Muslim response names the emperor as Nicephorus Phocas (r. 963-69).

The author was evidently a native Arabic speaker, with a facility for poetical composition. The know…

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Thomas, David, “Representative of Nicephorus Phocas”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500, General Editor David Thomas. Consulted online on 17 October 2019 <>
First published online: 2010

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