Pseudo-Leo III’s first letter to ʿUmar II
Date: Unknown, probably 8th c.
Original Language: Arabic
Parts of the polemical exchanges that circulated in the form of letters written in the name of the Byzantine emperor Leo III and the Umayyad Caliph ʿUmar II have survived in three different texts. These texts form a Muslim refutation of Christianity that survives in Arabic and Aljamiado, and a Chris…