Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

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 Title unknown
(571 words)

Pseudo-Leo III’s first letter to ʿUmar II

Unknown author

Date: Unknown, probably 8th c.

Original Language: Arabic


Parts of the polemical exchanges that circulated in the form of letters written in the name of the Byzantine emperor Leo III and the Umayyad Caliph ʿUmar II have survived in three different texts. These texts form a Muslim refutation of Christianity that survives in Arabic and Aljamiado, and a Chris…

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Roggema, Barbara, “ Title unknown”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500, General Editor David Thomas. Consulted online on 05 December 2019 <>
First published online: 2010

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