Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access

 Copies of the 'Apology' of al-Kindī
(947 words)


Mār Ghrīghūryūs Yūḥannā ibn al-Ghurayr al-Zirbābī al-Shāmī

Date: 1655 and 1657

Original Language: Arabic


Dating to around the year 830, the Apology of al-Kindī is the most significant Christian Arabic text criticising Islam in the classical period. It consists of a long epistle by a certain ʿAbd al-Masīḥ ibn Isḥāq al-Kindī responding to a short epistle by a certain ʿAbdallāh ibn Ismāʿīl al-Hāshimī, in which the latter invites the fo…

Cite this page
Fathi, Jean, “ Copies of the 'Apology' of al-Kindī”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900, General Editor David Thomas. Consulted online on 14 August 2020 <>

▲   Back to top   ▲