Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

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Enforced migration: an Indian Ocean Africa narrative
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Bernard Lewis opens his book Race and slavery in the Middle East with an exchange between the British Consul General Drummond Hay and the Moroccan Sultan Moulay ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Hishām. In a letter dated 12 March 1842, Drummond Hay inquired after the measures taken by the sultan to enforce the prohibition of the slave trade, to which the sultan replied: ‘Be it known to you, that the Traffic in Slaves is a matter on which all Sects and Nations have agreed from the time of the sons of Adam, on …

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Frederiks, Martha, “Enforced migration: an Indian Ocean Africa narrative”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900, General Editor David Thomas. Consulted online on 17 October 2019 <>

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