Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

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 Usûlü’l-hikem fî nizâmi’l-ümem
(847 words)

‘Principles of rule for the order of the nations’

İbrahim Müteferrika

Date: 1731

Original Language: Ottoman Turkish


İbrahim Müteferrika informs us that he was prompted to write his treatise Usûlü’l-hikem fî nizâmi’l-ümem as a result of the economic and military decline of the Ottoman Empire as compared with the Christian European powers. He holds that the Ottoman state and its military can be reformed by studying the Europeans. The Usûlü’l-hikem is a development of the literary g…

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& Serkan Ince, Lejla Demiri, “ Usûlü’l-hikem fî nizâmi’l-ümem”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900, General Editor David Thomas. Consulted online on 07 July 2020 <>

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