The Hebrew term kôkāb, kôkābîm derives from the proto-Semitic root *kbkb, meaning ‘star’ in the great majority of the other Semitic languages (Ug. kbkb; Akk. kakkabu; Aram. kôkbāʾ, kôkabtāʾ [specifically of Planet Venus]; Ar. kawkab; Eth. kokab). It is attested 37 times in the Bible. In the NT two Greek terms are used for ‘star’: ἀστήρ, attested 24 times, and ἄστρον, attested 4 times. Stars were widely regarded as gods.
The stars, as created by God (Gen. 1.16; Amos 5.8; Job 9.9; Ps. 148.5; Wis. 13.…