(1,114 words)

I. Name

In the OT and NT the winds (רוחות, πνεύματα, ἄνεμοι) are either ruled as such by God personally (Exod. 10.13 and Exod. 19; Jer. 49.36; Jer. 51.1; Hos. 13.15; Ps. 135.7) or personified as his servants (מלאכים, ἄγγελοι: Ps. 104.4; Rev. 7.1). They are four in number (Jer. 49.36; Dan. 7.2; Rev. 7.1; cf. e.g. 1 Chr. 9.24; Dan. 8.8; Mark 13.27, where ‘the four winds’ = the points of the compass), and are conceived of as (a) winged being(s) (2 Sam. 22.11; Ps. 18.11; Ps. 104.3). They are addressed (Cant. 4.16…

Cite this page
G. Mussies, “Wind-Gods”, in: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online, Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst. Consulted online on 17 January 2019 <>

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