Zamzummim זמזמים
(282 words)

I. Name

Deut. 2.20 presents the Zamzummites, zamzummîm, as the Ammonite designation of the former inhabitants of the Ammonite area. Since the Zamzummites are interpreted as a tribe of the Rephaim related to the Enakites (Giants), it can be assumed that the Zamzummites are enfeebled spirits of the dead (Pope 1981:170; Hübner 1992: 163–164). Their name is etymologically connected to zmm, ‘to contrive evil’ (HALAT 262; Hübner 1992:212).

II. Identity

Unlike the Rephaim, the Zamzummites are not mentioned in texts outs…

Cite this page
B. Becking, “Zamzummim זמזמים”, in: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online, Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst. Consulted online on 17 January 2019 <>

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