Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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(3,611 words)

The city of Beirut, Lebanon, despite modern invocations of its antiquity and its spectacular urban growth after independence, is a product of a convergence of political, economic, and cultural forces of the nineteenth-century. “A beautiful ancient merchant city, it was one of the most important Syrian cities on the Roman coast. It rests on a nine-kilometre-long languet protruding into the Mediterranean Sea.” This is how in 1875 Buṭrus al-Bustānī (1819–83), a leading figure in the nineteenth century nahḍa, the Arab Awakening, located his hometown on the global geo-histori…

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Hanssen, Jens, “Beirut”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 17 October 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_25168>
First published online: 2019
First print edition: 9789004386655, 2019, 2019-4

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