Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Egypt until 1517
(3,469 words)

Occupied by Arab forces in 19/640, Egypt emerged as a preeminent province in the Islamic empire, ruled by the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid dynasties. Attaining autonomy under the Turkish governor Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in 254/868, Egypt became an independent power in the Middle East and North Africa over the next century. Subsequent establishment of a Shīʿī caliphate under the Fāṭimids and a Sunnī sultanate by the Ayyūbids, restructured by the Mamlūks, consistently emphasised agrarian exploitation of the Nile Valley, control over Syria, and domination of Red Sea trade routes, until the Ottoman occ…

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Petry, Carl Forbes, “Egypt until 1517”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 06 April 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_27796>
First published online: 2016
First print edition: 9789004305762, 2016, 2016-3



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