Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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(1,118 words)

Firḍa (Ar., also furḍa; Ott. Turk. ferde) is a term used for several different personal taxes levied by the government in Ottoman Egypt and Syria. During the second half of the twelfth/eighteenth century, the firḍa is attested as one of many duties imposed on the peasantry by soldiers of the provincial governors (Shaw, Furḍa).

In 1206/1791–2, Murād Bey and Ibrāhīm Bey, the joint de-facto rulers of Egypt between 1189/1775 and 1213/1798, used the term firḍat al-taḥrīr for a new levy to replace all the previous occasional duties. The firḍat al-taḥrīr belonged to the so-called mukhrījāt reve…

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Büssow, Johann, “Firḍa”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 23 September 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_27138>
First published online: 2020
First print edition: 9789004413443, 2020, 2020-2

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